Glucocorticoid metabolites enter the aquatic environment via mammalian excrements. Molecular structures of their C19O3 metabolites strongly resemble the major fish androgen 11-ketotestosterone. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the cortisol metabolite 5α-androstan-3,11,17-trione acts similarly to 11-ketotestosterone by employing a fish screening assay for endocrine-active substances. After 21 d, both 11-oxygenated compounds had masculinized sex characteristics of the anal fin in female medaka in a dose-dependent manner. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1613–1620. © 2010 SETAC
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