Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds in soils and sediments of the Tittabawassee River and associated floodplains downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than upstream sites. As a result of these concentrations, which are some of the greatest ever reported, a site-specific exposure assessment of belted kingfisher breeding in the assessment area was conducted. To reduce the uncertainty associated with predicting exposure from abiotic matrices, concentrations of residues were quantified in site-specific prey items and in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher. Dietary exposure, expressed as the potential average daily dose, based on site-specific concentrations of PCDFs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQWHO-Avian) in prey items was consistently greater along the Tittabawassee River than in associated reference areas and further downstream sites in the Saginaw River. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher varied among sampling areas, being greater in both eggs and nestlings nesting along the Tittabawassee River compared to those of belted kingfisher from upstream reference areas. Geometric mean concentrations of PCDD/DFs were 130 and 200 ng/kg wet weight in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher, respectively. These concentrations are the equivalent of 84 and 95 ng TEQWHO-Avian/kg. Site-specific biomagnification factors for select PCDD/DF congeners ranged from <1.0 to 1.8 in belted kingfisher. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 1158–1168. © 2012 SETAC
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