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REFERENCES

  • 1
    Custer CM. 2011. Swallows as a sentinel species for contaminant exposure and effect studies. In Elliott JE, Bishop CA, Morrissey CA, eds, Wildlife Ecotoxicology: Forensic Approaches. Springer, New York, NY, USA, pp 4591.
  • 2
    Secord AL, McCarty JP, Echols KR, Meadows JC, Gale RW, Tillit DE. 1999. Polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in tree swallows from the upper Hudson River, New York State, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 25192525.
  • 3
    Stapleton M, Dunn PO, McCarty J, Secord A, Whittingham LA. 2001. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination and minisatellite DNA mutation rates of tree swallows. Environ Toxicol Chem 20: 22632267.
  • 4
    Custer TW, Custer CM, Gray B. 2010. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpipers eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York. Ecotoxicology 19: 391404.
  • 5
    Custer TW, Custer CM, Gray B. 2010. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in belted kingfisher eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 29: 99110.
  • 6
    McCarty JP, Secord AL. 1999. Reproductive ecology of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 14331439.
  • 7
    Custer CM, Custer TW, Hines JE, Nichols JD, Dummer PM. 2007. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 26: 10561065.
  • 8
    Custer CM, Custer TW, Dummer PM. 2010. Patterns of organic contaminants in eggs of an insectivorous, an omnivorous, and a piscivorous bird nesting on the Hudson River, New York, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 29: 22862296.
  • 9
    Custer CM, Custer TW, Dummer PM, Munney KL. 2003. Exposure and effects of chemical contaminants on tree swallows nesting along the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, 1998-2000. Environ Toxicol Chem 22: 16051621.
  • 10
    Rohwer S, Fretwell SD, Niles DM. 1980. Delayed maturation in passerine plumages and the deceptive acquisition of resources. Am Nat 115: 400437.
  • 11
    Lozano GA, Handford PT. 1995. A test of an assumption of delayed plumage maturation hypotheses using female tree swallows. Wilson Bull 107: 153164.
  • 12
    Hussell DJT. 1983. Age and plumage color in female tree swallows. J Field Ornithol 54: 312318.
  • 13
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  • 14
    Williams BK, Nichols JD, Conroy MJ. 2002. Analysis and Management of Animal Populations. Academic, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • 15
    Winkler DW, Wrege PH, Allen PE, Kast TL, Senesac P, Wasson MF, Llambias PE, Ferretti V, Sullivan PJ. 2004. Breeding dispersal and philopatry in the tree swallow. Condor 106: 768776.
  • 16
    Burnham KP, Anderson DR. 2002. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA.
  • 17
    Buckland ST, Burnham KP, Augustin NH. 1997. Model selection: An integral part of inference. Biometrics 38: 469477.
  • 18
    Shutler D, Clark RG. 2003. Causes and consequences of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) dispersal in Saskatchewan. Auk 120: 619631.
  • 19
    Hallinger KK, Cornell KL, Brasso RL, Cristol DA. 2011. Mercury exposure and survival in free-living tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Ecotoxicology 20: 3946.
  • 20
    Bulit F, Massoni V. 2011. Apparent survival and return rate of breeders in the southern temperate white-rumped swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa. Ibis 153: 190194.
  • 21
    De Steven D. 1978. The influence of age on the breeding biology of the tree swallow Iridoprocne bicolor. Ibis 120: 516523.
  • 22
    Schaub M, von Hirschheydt J. 2009. Effect of current reproduction on apparent survival, breeding dispersal and future reproduction in barn swallows assessed by multistate capture–recapture models. J Anim Ecol 78: 625635.
  • 23
    Lombardo MP, Thorpe PA. 2010. Local breeding experience and the reproductive performance of tree swallows. J Field Ornithol 81: 294301.
  • 24
    Hess PJ, Zenger CG, Schmidt RA. 2008. Weather-related tree swallow mortality and reduced nesting effort. Northeast Nat 15: 630631.
  • 25
    Newton I. 2007. Weather-related mass-mortality events in migrants. Ibis 149: 453467.
  • 26
    Stokke BG, Møller AP, Sæther B-E, Rheinwald G, Gutscher H. 2005. Weather in the breeding area and during migration affects the demography of a small long-distance passerine migrant. Auk 122: 637647.
  • 27
    Custer CM, Custer TW, Allen PD, Stromborg KL, Melancon MJ. 1998. Reproduction and environmental contamination in tree swallows nesting in the Fox River drainage and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 17: 17651798.
  • 28
    Breton AR, Fox GA, Chardine JW. 2008. Survival of adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a Lake Ontario colony over two decades of environmental change. Waterbirds 31: 1523.
  • 29
    Mitro MG, Evers DC, Meyer MW, Piper WH. 2008. Common loon survival rates and mercury in New England and Wisconsin. J Wildl Manag 72: 665673.
  • 30
    Eeva T, Hakkarainen H, Belskii E. 2009. Local survival of pied flycatcher males and females in a pollution gradient of a Cu smelter. Environ Pollut 157: 18571861.
  • 31
    Van den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Bosveld ATC, Brunström B, Cook P, Feeley M, Giesy JP, Hanberg A, Hasegawa R, Kennedy SW, Kubiak T, Larsen JC, Rolaf van Leeuwen FX, Djien Liem AK, Nolt C, Peterson RE, Poellinger L, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tillitt D, Tysklind M, Younes M, Wærn F, Zacharewski T. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ Health Perspect 106: 775792.
  • 32
    Custer CM, Custer TW, Rosiu CJ, Dummer PM, Melancon MJ, Bickham JW. 2005. Exposure and effects of dioxins, furans, and other organochlorine chemicals on tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island. Environ Toxicol Chem 24: 93109.