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Use of solid phase microextraction to estimate toxicity: Relating fiber concentrations to toxicity—part I

Authors

  • Yuping Ding,

    1. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
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  • Peter F. Landrum,

    1. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
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  • Jing You,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
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  • Amanda D. Harwood,

    1. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
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  • Michael J. Lydy

    Corresponding author
    1. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
    • Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
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Abstract

Use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers as a dose metric for toxicity testing was evaluated for hydrophobic pesticides to the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test compounds included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p′-DDD), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), permethrin, bifenthrin, tefluthrin, and chlorpyrifos. Acute water toxicity tests were determined for 4- and 10-d exposures in both species. Median lethal and sublethal concentrations were expressed both on a water concentration (LC50 and EC50) and on an equilibrium SPME fiber concentration (LC50fiber and EC50fiber) basis. A significant log dose–response relationship was found between log fiber concentration and organism mortality. It has been shown in the literature that equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations reflect the bioavailable concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, so these fiber concentrations should be a useful metric for assessing toxic effects from the bioavailable contaminant providing a framework to expand the use of SPME fibers beyond estimation of bioaccumulation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2159–2167. © 2012 SETAC

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