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Keywords:

  • Biotransformation;
  • Body residue;
  • Chironomus dilutus;
  • Hyalella azteca;
  • SPME fiber;
  • Toxicity

Abstract

In the companion paper, solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber concentrations were used as a dose metric to evaluate the toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides, and concentration–response relationships were found for the hydrophobic pesticides tested in the two test species. The present study extends the use of fiber concentrations to organism body residues to specifically address biotransformation and provide the link to toxic response. Test compounds included the organochlorines p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p′-DDD), and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE); two pyrethroids, permethrin and bifenthrin; and an organophosphate, chlorpyrifos. Toxicity, body residues, and biotransformation of the target compounds were determined for the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Significant regression relationships were found without regard to chemical, extent of biotransformation, or whether the chemical reached steady state in the organisms. The equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations correlated with the parent compound concentration in the biota; however, the regressions were duration specific. Furthermore, the SPME fiber-based toxicity values yielded species-specific regressions with the parent compound–based toxicity values linking the use of SPME fiber as a dose metric with tissue residues to estimate toxic response. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2168–2174. © 2012 SETAC