• 1
    Environment Canada. 2003. Canada's RAP progress report 2003. Burlington, ON.
  • 2
    Palmer MD. 1968. Some notes on small confined harbour pollution characteristics, Wheatley. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON, Canada.
  • 3
    Bedard D, Petro S. 1995. Laboratory sediment bioassay report on Wheatley Harbour sediments 1992. PIBS 2479. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON, Canada.
  • 4
    Dove A, Painter S, Williams D, Kraft J. 2003. Sediment quality and fish tissue contaminant investigations in Muddy Creek, 2002 ECB/EHD-OR/03–05/I. Environment Canada, Burlington, ON.
  • 5
    Safe S. 1984. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): Biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism of action. Crit Rev Toxicol 13:319396.
  • 6
    Frame GM, Cochran JW, Bøwadt SS. 1996. Complete PCB congener distributions for 17 Aroclor mixtures determined by 3 HRGC systems optimized for comprehensive, quantitative, congener-specific analysis. J High Resol Chromatogr 19:657668.
  • 7
    Rushneck DR, Beliveau A, Fowler B, Hamilton C, Hoover D, Kaye K, Berg M, Smith T, Telliard WA, Roman H, Ruder E, Ryan L. 2004. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCB congeners in unweathered Aroclors by HRG/HRMS using EPA Method 1668A. Chemosphere 54:7987.
  • 8
    Letcher RJ, Klasson-Wehler E, Bergman Å. 2000. Methyl sulfone and hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls. In Passivirta J, ed, 3K New Types of Persistent Halogenated Compounds 11. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 315359.
  • 9
    Bergman Å, Klasson-Wehler E, Kuroki H. 1994. Selective retention of hydroxylated PCB metabolites in blood. Environ Health Perspect 102:464469.
  • 10
    Campbell LM, Muir DCG, Whittle M, Backus S, Norstrom RJ, Fisk AT. 2003. Hydroxylated PCBs and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) blood plasma from the Great Lakes region. Environ Sci Technol 37:17201725.
  • 11
    Li H, Drouillard KG, Bennett E, Haffner GD, Letcher RJ. 2003. Plasma-associated halogenated phenolic contaminants in benthic and pelagic fish species from the Detroit River. Environ Sci Technol 37:832839.
  • 12
    Klasson-Wehler E, Bergman Å, Athanasiadou M, Ludwig JP, Auman HJ, Kannan K, Berg MVD, Murk AJ, Feyk LA, Giesy JP. 1998. Hydroxylated and methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in albatrosses from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:16201625.
  • 13
    Sandala GM, Sonne-Hansen C, Dietz R, Muir DCG, Valters K, Bennett ER, Born EW, Letcher RJ. 2004. Hydroxylated and methyl sulfone PCB metabolites in adipose and whole blood of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. Sci Total Environ 331:125141.
  • 14
    Hoekstra PF, Letcher RJ, O'Hara TM, Backus SM, Solomon KR, Muir DCG. 2003. Hydroxylated and methylsulfone-containing metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the plasma and blubber of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). Environ Toxicol Chem 22:26502658.
  • 15
    Sandau CD, Ayotte P, Desailty E, Duffe J, Norstrom RJ. 2000. Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian Inuit. Environ Health Perspect 108:611616.
  • 16
    Brouwer A, Morse DC, Lans MC, Schuur AG, Murk AJ, Klasson-Wehler E, Bergman Å, Visser TJ. 1998. Interactions of persistent environmental organohalogens with the thyroid hormone system: Mechanisms and possible consequences for animal and human health. Toxicol Ind Health 14:5984.
  • 17
    Oliver BG, Bourbonniere RA. 1985. Chlorinated contaminants in surficial sediments of Lakes Huron, St. Clair, and Erie: Implications regarding sources along the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers. J Great Lakes Res 11:366372.
  • 18
    Ikonomou MG, Fernandez MP, Knapp W, Sather P. 2002. PCBs in Dungeness crab reflect distinct source fingerprints among harbor/industrial sites in British Columbia. Environ Sci Technol 36:25452551.
  • 19
    de Solla SR, Fernie KJ, Letcher RJ, Chu SG, Drouillard KG, Shahmiri S. 2007. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes basin. 1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in eggs. Environ Sci Technol 41:72527259.
  • 20
    Sather PJ, Ikonomou MG, Addison RF, He T, Ross PS, Fowler B. 2001. Similarity of an Aroclor-based and a full congener-based method in determining total PCBs and a modeling approach to estimate Aroclor speciation from congener-specific PCB data. Environ Sci Technol 35:48744880.
  • 21
    Yunker MB, Ikonomou MG, Sather PJ, Friesen EN, Higgs DA, Dubetz C. 2011. Development and validation of protocols to differentiate PCB patterns between farmed and wild salmon. Environ Sci Technol 45:21072115.
  • 22
    Macdonald CR, Norstrom RJ, Turle R. 1992. Application of pattern recognition techniques to assessment of biomagnification and sources of polychlorinated multicomponent pollutants, such as PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. Chemosphere 25:129134.
  • 23
    Verreault J, Villa RA, Gabrielsen GW, Skaare JU, Letcher RJ. 2006. Maternal transfer of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites to eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls. Environ Pollution 144:10531060.
  • 24
    Schulz DE, Petrick G, Duinker JC. 1989. Complete characterization of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in commercial Aroclor and Clophen mixtures by multidimensional gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Environ Sci Technol 23:852859.
  • 25
    Gilroy ÈAM, McMaster ME, Parrott JL, Hewitt LM, Park BJ, Brown SB, Sherry JP. 2012. Assessment of the health status of wild fish from the Wheatley Harbour Area of Concern, Ontario, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem 31:27982811 (this issue).
  • 26
    McGoldrick DJ, Clark MG, Keir MJ, Backus SM, Malecki MM. 2010. Canada's national aquatic biological specimen bank and database. J Great Lakes Res 36:393398.
  • 27
    Lazar R, Edwards RC, Metcalfe CD, Metcalfe T, Gobas FAPC, Haffner GD. 1992. A simple, novel method for the quantitative analysis of coplanar (non-ortho substituted) polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples. Chemosphere 25:493504.
  • 28
    Drouillard KG, Hagen H, Haffner GD. 2004. Evaluation of chloroform/methanol and dichloromethane/hexane extractable lipids as surrogate measures of sample partition capacity for organochlorines in fish tissues. Chemosphere 55:395400.
  • 29
    O'Rourke S, Drouillard KG, Haffner GD. 2004. Determination of laboratory and field elimination rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47:7483.
  • 30
    Ueno D, Darling C, Alaee M, Campbell L, Pacepavicius G, Teixeira C, Muir D. 2007. Detection of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the abiotic environment: Surface water and precipitation from Ontario, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 41:18411848.
  • 31
    Drouillard KG, Tomczak M, Reitsma S, Haffner GD. 2006. A river-wide survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments of the Detroit River–1999. J Great Lakes Res 32:209226.
  • 32
    Sandau CD, Meerts IATM, Letcher RJ, Mcalees AJ, Chittim B, Brouwer A, Norstrom RJ. 2000. Identification of 4-hydroxyheptachlorostyrene in polar bear plasma and its binding affinity to transthyretin: A metabolite of octachlorostyrene? Environ Sci Technol 34:38713877.
  • 33
    Van den Berg M, Bimbaum L, Bosveld ATC, Brunström B, Cook P, Feeley M, Giesy JP, Hanberg A, Hasegawa R, Kennedy SW, Kubiak T, Larsen JC, van Leeuwen FXR, Liem ALD, Nolt C, Peterson RE, Poellinger L, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tillitt D, Tysklind M, Younes M, Wærn F, Zacharewski T. 2009. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ Health Perspect 106:775792.
  • 34
    Painter S, Marvin CH, Rosa F, Reynoldson TB, Charlton MN, Fox M, Thiessen PAL, Estenik JF. 2001. Sediment contamination in Lake Erie: A 25-year retrospective analysis. J Great Lakes Res 27:434448.
  • 35
    Bowley SR. 1999. A Hitchiker's Guide to Statistics in Plant Biology. Any Old Subject Books, Guelph, ON, Canada.
  • 36
    Press WH, Flannery WT, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling BP. 1992. Numerical Recipes in C. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • 37
    Environment Canada. 2005. Canadian Tissue Residue Guidelines–Dioxins and Furans. National Guidelines and Standards Office, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
  • 38
    Bhavsar SP, Reiner EJ, Hayton A, Fletcher R, MacPherson K. 2008. Converting Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in fish from one Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme to another. Environ Int 34:915921.
  • 39
    Parrott J, Chong-Kit R, Rokosh D. 1999. MFO induction in fish: A tool to measure environmental exposure. In Rao SS, ed, Impact assessment of hazardous aquatic contaminants: concepts and approaches. CRC, New York, NY, USA, pp 99122.
  • 40
    Ucan-Marin F, Arukwe A, Mortensen AS, Gabrielsen GW, Letcher RJ. 2010. Recombinant albumin and transthyretin transport preteins from two gull species and human: Chlorinated and brominated contaminant binding and thyroid hormones. Environ Sci Technol 44:497504.
  • 41
    Buckman AH, Wong CS, Chow EA, Brown SB, Solomon KR, Fisk AT. 2006. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish. Aquat Toxicol 78:176185.
  • 42
    Matthews HB, Dedrick RL. 1984. Pharmacokinetics of PCBs. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 24:85103.
  • 43
    Buckman AH, Brown SB, Small J, Muir DCG, Parrott J, Solomon KR, Fisk AT. 2007. Role of temperature and enzyme induction in the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls and bioformation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Sci Technol 41:38563863.
  • 44
    de Solla SR, Fernie KJ. 2004. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour. Environ Pollut 132:101112.
  • 45
    Fisk AT, Norstrom RJ, Cymbalisty CD, Muir DCG. 1998. Dietary accumulation and depuration of hydrophobic organochlorines: Bioaccumulation parameters and their relationship with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:951961.