• 1
    Cormier SM, Suter GW II, Zheng L. 2013. Derivation of a benchmark for freshwater ionic strength. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:263271 (this issue).
  • 2
    U.S., Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. A field based aquatic life benchmark for conductivity in Central Appalachian streams. EPA 600/R-10/023F. Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC.
  • 3
    Cormier S, Suter GW II. 2013. A method for assessing causation of field exposure-response relationships. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:272276 (this issue).
  • 4
    Suter GW II, Cormier SM. 2013. A method for assessing the potential for confounding applied to ionic strength in Central Appalachian streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:288295 (this issue).
  • 5
    U.S., Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs) for ecological risk assessment. EPA 630/P-02/004B. Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, DC.
  • 6
    Pond GJ, Passmore ME, Borsuk FA, Reynolds L, Rose CJ. 2008. Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mining: Comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools. J N Am Benthol Soc 27:717737.
  • 7
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. The effects of mountaintop mines and valley fills on aquatic ecosystems of the Central Appalachian coalfields. EPA 600/R-09/138F. Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC.
  • 8
    Evans DH. 2008. Teleost fish osmoregulation: What have we learned since August Krogh, Homer Smith, and Ancel Keys? Am J Physiol Reg I 295:R704R713.
  • 9
    Evans DH. 2008. Osmotic and Ionic Regulation: Cells and Animals. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  • 10
    Remane A. 1971. Ecology of brackish water. In Remane A, Schlieper C, eds, Biology of Brackish Water, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.
  • 11
    Bradley TJ. 2009. Animal Osmoregulation. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  • 12
    Cormier SM, Suter GW II, Norton SB. 2010. Causal characteristics for ecoepidemiology. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 16:5373.
  • 13
    Suter GW II, Cormier SM. 2011. Why and how to combine evidence in environmental assessments: Weighing evidence and building cases. Sci Total Environ 409:14061417.
  • 14
    Woods AJ, Omernik JM, Brown DD, Kiilsgaard CW. 1996. Level III and IV ecoregions of Pennsylvania and the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Ridge and Valley, and the Central Appalachians of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland. EPA 600/R-96/077. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Corvallis, OR, USA.
  • 15
    Hagiwara S, Jaffe LA. 1979. Electrical properties of egg cell membranes. Annu Rev Biophys Bioeng 8:385416.
  • 16
    Kennedy AJ, Cherry DS, Currie RJ. 2004. Evaluation of ecologically relevant bioassays for a lotic system impacted by a coal-mine effluent, using Isonychia. Environ Monit Assess 95:3755.
  • 17
    Komnick H. 1977. Chloride cells and chloride epithelia of aquatic insects. Int Rev Cytol 49:285328.
  • 18
    Merricks TC, Cherry DS, Zipper CE, Currie RJ, Valenti TW. 2007. Coal-mine hollow fill and settling pond influences on headwater streams in southern West Virginia, USA. Environ Monit Assess 129:359378.
  • 19
    Nelson DL, Cox MM. 2005. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 4th ed. WH Freeman & Co, New York, NY, USA.
  • 20
    O'Donnel MJ. 2011. Mechanisms of excretion and ion transport in invertebrates. Comprehen Physiol. DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130217.
  • 21
    Smith DG. 2001. Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea, 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.
  • 22
    Tarin JJ, Cano A. 2000. Fertilization in Protozoa and Metazoan Animals: Cellular and Molecular Aspects. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • 23
    Ziegler CR, Suter GW II, Ben JK. 2010. Candidate cause: Ionic strength. CADDIS, Vol 2: Sources, Stressors, and Responses. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 24
    Bryant G, Mcphilliamy S, Childers H. 2002. A survey of the water quality of streams in the primary region of mountaintop/valley fill coal mining, October 1999 to January 2001. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Mountaintop Mining/Valley Fills in Appalachia—2003 Appendix D. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • 25
    Timpano A, Schoenholtz S, Zipper C, Soucek D. 2011. Levels of dissolved solids associated with aquatic life effects in headwater streams of Virginia's Central Appalachian coalfield region. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
  • 26
    Bunge M. 1979. Causality and Modern Science, 3rd revised ed. Dover, New York, NY, USA.
  • 27
    Hem JD. 1985. Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Waters, 3rd ed. USGS Water Supply Paper 2254. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 263.
  • 28
    Forman RTT, Alexander LE. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu Rev Ecol System 29:207231.
  • 29
    Herlihy AT, Stoddard JL, Johnson CB. 1998. The relationship between stream chemistry and watershed land cover data in the mid-Atlantic region, U.S. Water Air Soil Pollut 105:377386.
  • 30
    U.S., Department of Energy. 2004. A white paper describing produced water from production of crude oil, natural gas, and coal bed methane. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV.
  • 31
    Carey RO, Migliaccio KW. 2009. Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: A review. Environ Manage 44:205217.
  • 32
    Bernot MJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, David MB. 2006. Nutrient uptake in streams draining agricultural catchments of the Midwestern United States. Freshwater Biol 51:499509.
  • 33
    Swank WT, Douglass JE. 1977. Nutrient budgets for undisturbed and manipulated hardwood ecosystems in the mountains of North Carolina. In Correll DL, ed, Watershed Research in Eastern North America: A Workshop to Compare Results. Smithsonian Institution, Edgewater, MD, USA, pp 343363.
  • 34
    Golladay SW, Webster JR, Benfield EF, Swank WT. 1992. Changes in stream stability following forest clearing as indicated by storm nutrient budgets. Arch Hydrobiol 1:133.
  • 35
    Arthur MA, Coltharp GB, Brown DL. 1998. Effects of best management practices on forest streamwater quality in eastern Kentucky. J Am Water Resour Assoc 34:481495.
  • 36
    Likens GE, Bormann FH, Johnson NM, Fisher DW, Pierce RS. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 40:2347.
  • 37
    Pond GJ. 2010. Patterns of Ephemeroptera taxa loss in Appalachian headwater streams (Kentucky, USA). Hydrobiologia 641:185201.
  • 38
    Cormier S, Wilkes S, Zheng L. 2012. Relationship of land use and elevated ionic strength in Appalachian watersheds. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:296303 (this issue).
  • 39
    Cormier SM, Suter GW II. 2012. A method for assessing the potential for confounding applied to ionic strength in Central Appalachian streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:288295 (this issue).
  • 40
    Lindberg T, Bernhardt E, Bier R, Helton A, Merola R, Vengosh A, Di Giulio R. 2011. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:2092920934.
  • 41
    Sutcliffe DW. 1962. The composition of Haemolymph in aquatic insects. J Exp Biol 39:325343.
  • 42
    Thorp JH, Covich AP. 2001. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 2nd ed. Academic, New York, NY, USA.
  • 43
    Wood CM, Shuttleworth TJ. 2008. Cellular and Molecular Approaches to Fish Ionic Regulation. Academic, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • 44
    Gerritsen J, Zheng L, Burton J, Boschen C, Wilkes S, Ludwig J, Cormier SM. 2010. Inferring causes of biological impairment in the Clear Fork Watershed, West Virginia. EPA 600/R-08/146. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
  • 45
    Hill AB. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causation. Proc R Soc Med 58:295300.
  • 46
    Kennedy AJ, Cherry DS, Currie RJ. 2003. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44:324331.
  • 47
    Gerritsen J, Burton J, Barbour MT. 2000. A stream condition index for West Virginia wadeable streams. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Tetra Tech Inc, Owings Mills, MD, USA.
  • 48
    Stoner N, Giles C. 2011. Improving EPA review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order. In July 21, 2011 memorandum to Garvin S, Fleming GK, Hedman, S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 49
    Ward KJ. 2011. Big news: EPA finalizes water quality guidance to reduce impacts of mountaintop removal mining. Coal Tattoo. The Charleston Gazette, Charleston, WV, USA.
  • 50
    Pond GJ, Bailey JE, Lowman B. 2008. West Virginia GLIMPSS (genus-level index of most probable stream status): A benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity for West Virginia's wadeable streams. West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water and Waste Management, Watershed Branch, Charleston, WV, USA.