SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Buck RC, Franklin JBU, Conder JM, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, Jensen AA, Kannan K, Mabury SA, Leeuwen SPJ. 2011. Perfluorolkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment: Terminology, classification, and origins. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:513k541.
  • 2
    Agency for Toxic Substances an Disease Registry. 2009. Draft toxicological profile for perfluoroalkyls. ATSDR Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • 3
    Lehmler HJ. 2005. Synthesis of environmentally relevant fluorinated surfactants—A review. Chemosphere 58:14711496.
  • 4
    Giesy J, Kannan K. 2001. Global distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate in wildlife. Environ Sci Technol 35:13391342.
  • 5
    Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, Fillmann G, Kumar KS, Loganathan BG, Mohd MA, Olivero J, Van Wouwe N, Yang JH, Aldous KM. 2004. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries. Environ Sci Technol 38:44894495.
  • 6
    Houde M, Hoekstra PF, Solomon KR, Muir D. 2005. Organohalogen contaminants in delphinoid cetaceans. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 184:157.
  • 7
    Houde M, Wells R, Fair P, Bossart G, Hohn A, Rowles T, Sweeney J, Solomon K, Muir D. 2005. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Environ Sci Technol 39:65916598.
  • 8
    Fair P, Houde M, Hulsey T, Bossart G, Adams J, Balthis L, Muir D. 2012. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast U.S. estuarine areas: Relationship with age, sex, and geographic locations. Mar Pollut Bull 64:6674.
  • 9
    Lau C, Anitole C, Hodes D, Lai A, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99:366394.
  • 10
    Seacat A, Thomford P, Hansen K, Olsen G, Case M, Butenhoff J. 2002. Subchronic toxicity studies on perfluorooctanesulfonate potassium salt in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci 68:249264.
  • 11
    Seacat AM, Thomford PJ, Hansen KJ, Clemen LA, Eldridge SR, Elcombe CR, Butenhoff JL. 2003. Sub-chronic dietary toxicity of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate in rats. Toxicol 183:117131.
  • 12
    Olsen GW, Butenhoff JL, Zobel LR. 2009. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and human fetal development: An epidemiologic review with clinical and toxicological perspectives. Reprod Toxicol 27:212230.
  • 13
    DeWitt JC, Peden-Adams MM, Keller JM, Germolec DR. 2012. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: Recent developments. Toxicol Pathol 40:300311.
  • 14
    DeWitt JC, Shnyra A, Badr MZ, Loveless SE, Hoban D, Frame SR, Cunard R, Anderson SE, Meade BJ, Peden-Adams MM, Luebke RW, Luster MI. 2009. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Crit Rev Toxicol 39:7694.
  • 15
    Guruge KS, Hikono H, Shimada N, Murakami K, Hasegawa J, Yeung LW, Yamanaka N, Yamashita N. 2009. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on influenza A virus-induced mortality in female B6C3F1 mice. J Toxicol Sci 34:687691.
  • 16
    Grandjean P, Wreford Andersen E, Budtz-Jorgensen E, Nielsen F, Molbak K, Weihe P, Heilmann C. 2012. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds. J Amer Med Assoc 307:391397.
  • 17
    Calafat A, Wong L-Y, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy J, Needham L. 2007. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and comparisons to NHANES 1999–2000. Environ Health Perspect 115:15961602.
  • 18
    Apelberg B, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, Needham LL, Goldman LR. 2007. Cordserum concentrations of perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoate (PFOS) in relation to weight and size at birth. Environ Health Perspect 115:16701676.
  • 19
    La Rocca C, Alessi E, Bergamasco B, Caserta D, Ciardo F, Fanello E, Focardi S, Guerranti C, Stecca L, Moscarini M, Perra G, Tait S, Zaghi C, Mantovani A. 2012. Exposure and effective dose biomarkers for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in infertile subjects: Preliminary results of the PREVIENI project. Int J Hyg Environ Health 215:206211.
  • 20
    Steenland K, Fletcher T, Savitz D. 2010. Epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Environ Health Perspect 118:11001108.
  • 21
    Sakr C, Leonard R, Kreckmann K, Slade M, MR C. 2007. Longitudinal study of serum lipids and liver enzymes in workers with occupational expsoure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate. J Occup Environ Med 49:872879.
  • 22
    Costa G, Sartori S, Consonni D. 2009. Thirty years of medical surveillance in perfluoctanoic acid production workers. J Occup Environ Med 51:364372.
  • 23
    Gallo V, Leonardi G, Genser B, Lopez-Espinosa M-J, Frisbee SJ, Karlsson L, Ducatman AM, Fletcher T. 2012. Serum perfluorooctane (PFOA) and perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations and liver function biomarkers in population with elevated PFOA exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120:655660.
  • 24
    Kannan K, Perrotta E, Thomas N. 2006. Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters. Environ Sci Technol 40:49434948.
  • 25
    Olsen G, Burris J, Mandel J, Zobel L. 1999. Serum perfluorooctane sulfonate and hepatic and lipid clinical chemistry tests in fluorochemical production employees. J Occup Environ Med 41:799806.
  • 26
    Fair PA, Adams JD, Zolman E, McCulloch SD, Goldstein JD, Murdoch ME, Varela R, Hansen L, Townsend F, Kucklick J, Bryan C, Christopher S, Pugh R, Bossart GD. 2006. Protocols for conducting dolphin capture-release health assessment studies. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 49, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
  • 27
    Hohn AA, Scott MD, Wells RS, Sweeney JC, Irvine AB. 1989. Growth layers in teeth from known-age, free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. Mar Mamm Sci 5:315342.
  • 28
    Reif JS, Peden-Adams MM, Romano TA, Rice CD, Fair PA, Bossart GD. 2008. Immune dysfunction in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with lobomycosis. J Clin Micro Infec Immun Med Myco 47:125135.
  • 29
    Beck B, Rice C. 2003. Serum antibody levels against select bacterial pathogens in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, from Beaufort, NC, USA, and Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC, USA. Mar Environ Res 55:161179.
  • 30
    Keogh M, Spoon T, Ridgway S, Jensen E, Van Bonn W, Romano T. 2011. Simultaneous measurement of phagocytosis and respiratory burst of leukocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) utilizing flow cytometry. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 144:468475.
  • 31
    Romano T, Keogh M, Kelly C, Feng P, Berk L, Schlundt C, Carder D, Finneran J. 2004. Anthropogenic sound and marine mammal health: Measures of the nervous and immune systems before and after intense sound exposure. Can J Fish Aquatic Sci 61:11241134.
  • 32
    Keller J, McClellan P, Kucklick JR, Keil D, Peden-Adams M. 2006. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on loggerhead sea turtle immunity: Comparison of a correlative field study and in vitro exposure experiments. Environ Health Perspect 114:7076.
  • 33
    Hornung R, Reed L. 1990. Estimation of average concentration in the presence of nondetectable values. App Occup Environ Hyg 5:4651.
  • 34
    Mead JG, Potter CW. 1990. Natural history of bottlenose dolphins along the central Atlantic coast of the United States. In Leatherwood S, Reeves RR, eds, The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA pp 165195.
  • 35
    Keil D, Mehlmann T, Butterworth L, Peden-Adams M. 2008. Gestational exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate suppresses immune function in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 103:7785.
  • 36
    Peden-Adams M, Keller J, EuDaly A, Berger J, Gilkeson G, Keil D. 2008. Suppression of humoral immunity in mice following exposure to the perfluorooctane sulfonate. Toxicol Sci 104:144154.
  • 37
    Reif JS, Fair PA, Adams J, Joseph B, Kilpatrick D, Sanchez R, Goldstein JD, McCulloch SD, Mazzoil M, Zolman ES, Hansen LJ, Bossart GD. 2008. Health status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon, FL and Charleston, SC. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:299307.
  • 38
    Bossart GD, Romano TA, Peden-Adams MM, Rice CD, Fair PA, Goldstein JD, Cammen K, Reif JS. 2008. Hematological, biochemical and immunological findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with orogenital papillomas. Aquat Mamm 34:166177.
  • 39
    Schwacke LH, Hall AJ, Townsend FI, Wells RS, Hansen LJ, Hohn AA, Bossart GD, Fair PA, Rowles TR. 2009. Hematology and clinical blood chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and variation related to geographic sampling site. Am J Vet Res 70:973985.
  • 40
    Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, Korzeniowski SH. 2006. Sources, fate, and transport of perfluorocarboxylates. Environ Sci Technol 40:3244.
  • 41
    Loganathan BG, Sajwan KS, Sinclari E, Kumar KS, Kannan K. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorocarboxylates in two wastewater treatment facilities in Kentucky and Georgia. Water Res 41:46114620.
  • 42
    Zushi Y, Takeda T, Masunaga S. 2008. Existence of nonpoint source of perfluorinated compounds and their loads in the Tsurumi River basin, Japan. Chemosphere 71:15661573.
  • 43
    Hickie N, Crump D, Jones S, Kennedy S. 2009. Effects of 18 perfluoroalkyl compounds on mRNA expression in chicken embryo hepatocyte cultures. Toxicol Sci 111:311320.
  • 44
    Wang IJ, Hsieh WS, Chen CY, Fletcher T, Lien GW, Chiang HL, Chiang CF, Wu TN, Chen PC. 2011. The effect of prenatal perfluorinated chemicals exposures on pediatric atopy. Environ Res 111:785791.
  • 45
    Peters JM, Gonzalez FJ. 2011. Why toxic equivalency factors are not suitable for perfluoroalkyl chemicals. Chem Res Tox 24:16011609.
  • 46
    Lefebvre DE, Curran I, Armstrong C, Coady L, Parenteau M, Liston V, Barker M, Aziz S, Rutherford K, Bellon-Gagnon P, Shenton J, Mehta R, Bondy G. 2008. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 71:15161525.
  • 47
    Fair P, Driscoll E, Mollenhauer M, Bradshaw S, Yun S, Kannan K, Bossart G, Keil D, Peden-Adams MM. 2011. Effects of environmentally-relevant levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate on clinical parameters and immunological functions in B6C3F1 mice. J Immunol 8:1729.
  • 48
    Romano T, Ridgway S, Quaranta V. 1992. MHC class II molecules and immunoglobulins on peripheral blood lymphocytes of the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. J Exp Zool 263:96104.
  • 49
    Dong G, Zhang YH, Zheng L, Liu W, Jin YH, He QC. 2009. Chronic effects of perfluorooctanesulfonate exposure on immunotoxicity in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Arch Toxicol 83:805815.
  • 50
    Zheng L, Dong G, Jin Y, He Q. 2009. Immunotoxic changes associated with a 7-day oral exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in adult male C57BL mice. Arch Toxicol 83:679689.
  • 51
    Yang Q, Xie Y, Depierre J. 2000. Effects of peroxisome proliferators on the thymus and spleen of mice. Clin Exp Immunol 122:219226.
  • 52
    Son H-Y, Lee S, Tak E-N, Cho H-S, Shin H, Kim S-H, Yang J-H. 2009. Perfluorooctanoic acid alters T lymphocyte phenotypes and cytokine expression in mice. Environ Toxicol 24:580588.
  • 53
    DeWitt J, Copeland C, Stynar M, Luebke R. 2008. Perfluorooctanoic acid-induced immunomodulation in adult C57BL/6J or C57BL/6N female mice. Environ Health Perspect 2008:644650.
  • 54
    Wong S, Fournier M, Coderre D, Banska W, Krzystyniak K. 1992. Environmental immunotoxicology. In Peakall D, ed, Animals Biomarkers as Pollution Indicators. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 167189.
  • 55
    Fournier M, Cyr D, Blakley B, Boermans H, Brousseau P. 2000. Phagocytosis as a biomarker of immunotoxicity in wildlife species exposed to environmental xenobiotics. Am Zool 40:412420.
  • 56
    Koller LD, Exon JL. 1985. The rat as a model for immunotoxicity assessment. In Dean JH, Munson AE, Amos H, eds, Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology. Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, pp 99111.
  • 57
    Sherwin J. 2003. Liver function. In Kaplan L, Pesce A, Kazmierczak S, eds, Clinical Chemistry Theory, Analysis, Correlation 4th ed. Mosby, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp 492506.
  • 58
    Lin CY, Lin LY, Chiang CK, Wang WJ, Su YN, Hung KY. 2010. Investigation of the association between low-dose serum perfluorinated chemicals and liver enzymes in US adults. Am J Gastroenterol 105:13541363.
  • 59
    Olsen GW, Zobel LR. 2007. Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluoroctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical production workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:231246.
  • 60
    Whitfield JB. 2001. Gamma glutamyl transferase. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 38:263355.
  • 61
    Lau C, Butenhoff J, Rogers J. 2004. The developmental toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids and their derivatives. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:2312341.
  • 62
    Ishibashi H, Iwata H, Kim EY, Tao L, Kannan K, Amano M, Miyazaki N, Tanabe S, Batoev VB, Petrov EA. 2008. Contamination and effects of perfluorochemicals in Baikal Seal (Pusa sibirica). 1. Residue level, tissue distribution, and temporal trend. Environ Sci Technol 42:22952301.
  • 63
    Bossart G, Reiderson T, Dierauf L, Duffield D. 2001. Clinical pathology. In Dierauf L, Gull F, eds, Marine Mammal Medicine. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  • 64
    Sakr C, Kreckmann K, Green J, Gillies P, Reynolds J, Leonard R. 2007. Cross-sectional study of lipids and liver enzymes related to serum biomarker of exposure (ammonium perfluoroctanoate or APFO) as part of a general health survey in a cohort of occupationally exposed workers. J Occup Environ Med 49:10861096.
  • 65
    Olsen G, Burris J, Burlew M, Mandel J. 2003. Epidemiologic assessment of worker serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations and medical surveillance examinations. J Occup Environ Med 45:260270.
  • 66
    Steenland K, Jin C, MacNeil J, Lally C, Ducatman A, Vieira V, Fletcher T. 2009. Predictors of PFOA levels in a community surrounding a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 117.
  • 67
    Nelson J, AHatch E, Webster T. 2010. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cholesterol, body weight, and insulin resistance in the general U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 118:197202.
  • 68
    Thibodeaux J, Hanson R, Rogers J, Grey B, Barbee B, Richards J, Butenhoff J, Stevenson L, Lau C. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: Maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74:369381.
  • 69
    Martin M, Brennan R, Hu W, Ayanoglu E, Lau C, Ren H. 2007. Toxicogenomic study of trizole fungicides and perfluoroalkyl acids in rat liver predicts toxicity and categorizes chemicals based on mechanisms to toxicity. Toxicol Sci 97:595613.
  • 70
    Loveless SE, Finlay C, Everds NE, Frame SR, Gillies PJ, O'Connor JC, Powley CR, Kennedy GL. 2006. Comparative responses of rats and mice exposed to linear/branched, linear, or branched ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO). Toxicol 220:203217.
  • 71
    Butenhoff J, Costa G, Elcombe C, Iwai H, Jung R, Kennedy G, Lieder P, Olsen GW, Thomford P. 2002. Toxicity of ammonium perfluoroctanoate in male cynomologus monkeys after oral dosing for 6 months. Toxicol Sci 69:244257.
  • 72
    Luebker DJ, York RG, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff J. 2005. Neonatal mortality from in utero exposure to perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague-Dawley rats: Dose – response, and biochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters. Toxicol 215:149169.
  • 73
    Kennedy GL, Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW, O'Connor JC, Seacat AM, Perkins RG, Biegel LB, Murphy SR, Farrar DG. 2004. The toxicology of perfluorooctanoate. Crit Rev Toxicol 34:351384.
  • 74
    Butenhoff JL, Kennedy GL, Hinderliter PM, Lieder PH, Jung R, Hansen KJ, Gorman GS, Noker PE, Thomford PJ. 2004. Pharmacokinetics of perfluorooctanoate in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci 82:394406.
  • 75
    Han X, Kemper RA, Jepson GW. 2005. Subcellular distribution and protein binding of perfluorooctanoic acid in rat liver and kidney. Drug Chem Tox 28:197209.
  • 76
    Cui L, Zhou QF, Liao CY, Fu JJ, Jiang GB, Arch l. 2009. Studies on the toxicological effects of PFOA and PFOS on rats using histological observation and chemical analysis. Environ Contam Tox 56:338349.
  • 77
    Shankar A, Xiao J, Ducatman A. 2011. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and chronic kidney disease in US adults. Am J Epidemiol 174:893900.
  • 78
    Friedman EA. 2005. Consequences and management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 67:S1S7.
  • 79
    Tchernitchin A, Mena M, Soto J, Unda C. 1989. The role of eosinophils in the action of estrogens and other hormones. Med Sci Res 17:510.
  • 80
    Azim A, Azim S, Ahmed K, Sharfi H, Rafi T, Luqman M. 2004. Diagnostic significance of serum protein electrophoresis. Biomed Biochim Acta 20:4044.
  • 81
    O'Connell TX, Horita TJ, Kasravi B. 2005. Understanding and interpreting serum protein electrophoresis. Am Fam Physician 71:105112.
  • 82
    Fair PA, Adams J, Mitchum G, Hulsey TC, Reif JS, Houde M, Muir D, Wirth E, Wetzel D, Zolman E, McFee W, Bossart GD. 2010. Contaminant blubber burdens in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from two southeastern US estuarine areas: Concentrations and patterns of PCBs, pesticides, PBDEs, PFCs, and PAHs. Sci Total Environ 408:15771597.
  • 83
    Fair PA, Mitchum G, Hulsey TC, Adams J, Zolman E, McFee W, Wirth E, Bossart GD. 2007. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blubber of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from two southeast Atlantic estuarine areas. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53:483494.