• 1
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Qualitative assessment of impacts of risk management strategies for endosulfan on multiple crops: Extending REIs and cancellation. Washington, DC.
  • 2
    Spurlock F, Lee M. 2008. Synthetic pyrethroid use patterns, properties, and environmental effects. In Gan J, Spurlock F, Dendley P, Weston DP, eds Synthetic Pyrethroids. Vol 991–ACS Symposium Series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 325.
  • 3
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2007. Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids. Atlanta, GA, USA.
  • 4
    Mount GA, Biery TL, Haile DG. 1996. A review of ultralow-volume aerial sprays of insecticide for mosquito control J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:601618.
  • 5
    Mount GA. 1998. A critical review of ultra low-volume aerosols of insecticide applied with vehicle mounted generators for adult mosquito control. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14:305334.
  • 6
    Amweg EL, Weston DP, You J, Lydy MJ. 2006. Pyrethroid insecticides and sediment toxicity in urban creeks from California and Tennessee. Environ Sci Technol 40:17001706.
  • 7
    Amweg EL, Weston DP, Johnson CS, You J, Lydy MJ. 2006. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on permethrin toxicity in the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:18171825.
  • 8
    Paul EA, Simonin HA. 2006. Toxicity of three mosquito insecticides to crayfish. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 76:614621.
  • 9
    Paul EA, Simonin HA, Tomajer TM. 2005. A comparison of the toxicity of synergized and technical formulations of permethrin, sumithrin, and resmethrin to trout. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:251259.
  • 10
    Weston DP, Amweg EL, Mekebri A, Ogle RS, Lydy MJ. 2006. Aquatic effects of aerial spraying for mosquito control over an urban area. Environ Sci Technol 40:58175822.
  • 11
    Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD. 2012. The joint toxicity of type I, II, and non-ester pyrethroid insecticides. J Econ Entomol 105:8591.
  • 12
    Laskowski DA. 2002. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 174:49170.
  • 13
    Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD. 2011. Pyrethrins and pyrethroid insecticides. In Lopez O, Fernández-Bolaños JG, eds, Green Trends in Insect Control. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK, pp 94131.
  • 14
    Sharom MS, Solomon KR. 1981. Absorption-desoption, degradation and distribution of permethrin in aqueous systems. J Agric Food Chem 29:11221125.
  • 15
    Leahey JP. 1985. Metabolism and environmental degradation. In Leahey JP, ed, The Pyrethroid Insecticides. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp 263342.
  • 16
    Yang J, Cai YL, Xiang WN, Zhao JY. 2007. Study on the procedure and approach for ecological risk regionalisation. N Z J Agric Res 50:943950.
  • 17
    Yang WC, Gan JY, Hunter W, Spurlock F. 2006. Effect of suspended solids on bioavailability of pyrethroid insecticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:15851591.
  • 18
    Yang WC, Hunter W, Spurlock F, Gan J. 2007. Bioavailability of permethrin and cyfluthrin in surface waters with low levels of dissolved organic matter. J Environ Qual 36:16781685.
  • 19
    Yang WC, Spurlock F, Liu WP, Gan JY. 2006. Inhibition of aquatic toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides by suspended sediment. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:19131919.
  • 20
    Burkhard LP. 2000. Estimating dissolved organic carbon partition coefficients for nonionic organic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 34:46634668.
  • 21
    Maund SJ, Hamer MJ, Lane MCG, Farrelly E, Rapley JH, Goggin UM, Gentle WE. 2002. Partitioning, bioavailability, and toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin in sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:915.
  • 22
    Davis RS, Peterson RKD, Macedo PA. 2007. An ecological risk assessment for insecticides used in adult mosquito management. Integr Environ Assess Manag 3:373382.
  • 23
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Pesticide Root Zone Model, Version 3.12, Vol 2005. Washington, DC.
  • 24
    Bilanin AJ, Teske ME, Barry JW, Ekblad RB. 1989. AgDisp: The aircraft spray dispersion model, code development and experimental validation. Trans ASAE 32:327334.
  • 25
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Reregistration eligibility decision (RED) for permethrin. EPA 738/R-09/06. Washington, DC.
  • 26
    Hiscox AL, Miller DR, Nappo CJ, Ross J. 2006. Dispersion of fine spray from aerial applications in stable atmospheric conditions. Trans ASABE 49:15131520.
  • 27
    Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD, Irvine KM, Marshall LM, Weaver DM, Preftakes CJ. 2012. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management. Sci Total Environ 438:7279.
  • 28
    New York City Department of Health. 2005. Adult mosquito control programs: Environmental impact statement (EIS). Final Report. New York City Department of Health, New York, NY, USA
  • 29
    Suffolk County Department of Public Works and Department of Health Services. 2006. Draft generic environmental impact statement. Draft Report. Suffolk County, NY, USA.
  • 30
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration eligibility decision for resmethrin. Case No. 0421. EPA 738/R-06/003. Washington, DC.
  • 31
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration eligibility decision for pyrethrins. Case No. 2580. EPA 738/R-06/004. Washington, DC.
  • 32
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration eligibility decision for piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Case No. 2525. EPA 738/R-06/005. Washington, DC.
  • 33
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Interim reregistration eligibility decision for naled. Case No. 0092. EPA 738/R-02/008. Washington, DC.
  • 34
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Reregistration eligibility decision (RED) for Malathion, Revised May 2009. EPA 738/R-06/030. Washington, DC.
  • 35
    Naumann K. 1990. Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticides: Structures and Properties. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA.
  • 36
    Siegfried BD. 1993. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to terrestrial and aquatic insects. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:16831689.
  • 37
    Bradbury SP, Coats JR. 1989. Comparative toxicology of the pyrethroid insecticides. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 108:133177.
  • 38
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. ECOTOX database. Washington, DC.
  • 39
    Newman MC, Ownby DR, Mezin LCA, Powell DC, Christensen TRL, Lerberg SB, Anderson B-A, Padma TV. 2000. Species sensitivity distributions in in ecological risk assessment: Distributional assumptions, alternate bootstrap techniques, and estimation of adequate number of species. In Posthuma L, Suter GW II, Traas TP, eds Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 119132.
  • 40
    Neter J, Kutner MH, Nachtsheim CJ, Wasserman W. 1996. Applied Linear Statistical Models, 4th ed. WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 41
    Hinds WC. 1982. Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.
  • 42
    Cooper DW. 2001. Methods of size distribution data analysis and presentation. In Baron PA, Willeke K, eds, Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, pp 667701.
  • 43
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. GENEEC Version 2.0, Vol 2005. Washington, DC.
  • 44
    Schulz R, Peall SKC, Dabrowski JM, Reinecke AJ. 2001. Spray deposition of two insecticides into surface waters in a South African orchard area. J Environ Qual 30:814822.
  • 45
    Hoke RA, Cotter AM, Goldenstein T, Kosian PA, van der Meiden FM, Ankley GT, Phipps GL. 1994. Evaluation of equilibrium partitioning theory for predicting acute toxicity of field-collected sediments contaminated with DDT, DDE and DDD to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:157166.
  • 46
    Hoke RA, Kosian PA, Cotter AM, van der Meiden FM, Ankley GT, Phipps GL, Durhan EJ. 1995. Check studies with Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans in support of the development of a sediment quality criterion for dieldrin. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:435443.
  • 47
    Di Toro DM, Zarba CS, Hansen DJ, Berry WJ, Swartz RC, Cowan CE, Pavlou SP, Allen HE, Thomas NA, Paquin PR. 1991. Technical basis for establishing sediment quality criteria for nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:15411583.
  • 48
    Yang WC, Spurlock F, Liu WP, Gan JY. 2006. Effects of dissolved organic matter on permethrin bioavailability to Daphnia species. J Agric Food Chem 54:39673972.
  • 49
    Aiken GR, Gilmour CC, Krabbenhoft DP, Orem W. 2011. Dissolved organic matter in the Florida Everglades: Implications for ecosystem restoration. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41:217248.
  • 50
    National Marine Fisheries Service. 2010. Endangered species act section 7 consultation: Biological opinion environmental protection agency registration of pesticides containing azinphos methyl, bensulide, dimethoate, disulfoton, ethoprop, fenamiphos, naled, methamidophos, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate and phosmet. Washington, DC, USA.
  • 51
    Bogen KT, Reiss R. 2012. Generalized Haber's law for exponential concentration decline, with application to riparian–aquatic pesticide ecotoxicity. Risk Anal 32:250258.
  • 52
    Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD, Macedo PA, Brown DA. 2008. Environmental concentrations, fate, and risk assessment of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide after aerial ultralow-volume applications for adult mosquito management. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:10631068.
  • 53
    Schleier JJ III. 2008. Environmental Concentrations, Fate, and Risk Assessment of Insecticides Used for Adult Mosquito Management. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
  • 54
    Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD. 2010. Deposition and air concentrations of permethrin and naled used for adult mosquito management. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:105111.
  • 55
    Wheelock CE, Miller JL, Miller MJ, Phillips BM, Gee SJ, Tjeerdema RS, Hammock BD. 2005. Influence of container adsorption upon observed pyrethroid toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. Aquat Toxicol 74:4752.
  • 56
    Jensen T, Lawler SP, Dritz DA. 1999. Effects of ultra-low volume pyrethrin, malathion, and permethrin on nontarget invertebrates, sentinel mosquitoes, and mosquitofish in seasonally impounded wetlands. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:330338.
  • 57
    U.S. Geological Survey. 2005. Concentrations of insecticides in selected surface water bodies in Suffolk County, New York, before and after mosquito spraying, 2002–04. Open-File Report 2005-1384. New York, NY, USA.
  • 58
    Davis RS, Peterson RKD. 2008. Effects of single and multiple applications of mosquito insecticides on nontarget arthropods. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24:270280.
  • 59
    Lawler SP, Dritz DA, Johnson CS, Wolder M. 2008. Does synergized pyrethrin applied over wetlands for mosquito control affect Daphnia magna zooplankton or Callibaetis californicus mayflies? Pest Manag Sci 64:843847.
  • 60
    Cole LM, Casida JE. 1983. Pyrethroid toxicology in the frog. Pestic Biochem Physiol 20:217224.
  • 61
    Giddings JM, Solomon KR, Maund SJ. 2001. Probabilistic risk assessment of cotton pyrethroids: II. Aquatic mesocosm and field studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:660668.
  • 62
    Bloomquist JR. 1993. Neuroreceptor mechanisms in pyrethroid mode of action and resistance. Rev Pestic Toxicol 2:185230.
  • 63
    Hill IR. 1989. Aquatic organisms and pyrethroids. Pestic Sci 27:429457.
  • 64
    Kedwards TJ, Maund SJ, Chapman PF. 1999. Community level analysis of ecotoxicological field studies: II. Replicated-design studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:158166.
  • 65
    Walker CH. 2009. Pyrethroid insecticides. In Walker CH, ed, Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicological Perspective. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 231239.
  • 66
    Mokry LE, Hoagland KD. 1990. Acute toxicities of five synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ Toxicol Chem 9:10451051.