Corrigendum


Depew DC, Basu N, Burgess NM, Campbell LM, Devlin EW, Drevnick PE, Hammerschmidt CR, Murphy CA, Sandheinrich MB, Wiener JG. 2012. Toxicity of dietary methylmercury to fish: Derivation of ecologically meaningful threshold concentrations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31:1536–1547. DOI: 10.1002/etc.1859

The authors of the above-noted paper hereby submit the following corrections. The paper includes the following errors:

  1. In Figure 1 the unbounded NOAEL for O. mykiss was incorrectly plotted.
  2. In Figure 2 the NOAEL and unbounded NOAEL for O. mykiss were incorrectly plotted.
  3. In Figure 3, the legend symbols for NOAEL and LOAEL endpoints were reversed in the legend and reproductive endpoints for P. promelas were incorrectly plotted.
  4. Table 2 incorrectly classifies apoptosis of ovarian cells as category 2b. The correct category is 3a. In addition, Table 2 incorrectly cites supplemental reference S18 as the source of data for NOAEL/LOAEL for fathead minnows on lines 48, 49, and 51. The correct reference is S9.
  5. Table 3 incorrectly identifies the highest NOAEL for biochemical effects as 0.06 and calculated TEL as 0.18. The highest NOAEL is 0.05 and the TEL is 0.14. This error is also incorrectly listed on page 1543 (left column, last paragraph, lines 2–3). In addition, Table 3 incorrectly identifies the number of species and calculated TEL for behavioral impacts as 0.61. The calculated TEL should have read 0.87. This error is also incorrectly listed on page 1543 (right column, second paragraph, line 3).

These corrections do not change the discussion and conclusions of the paper. Corrections are as follows:

Figure 1.

Cumulative frequency distribution of unbounded no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs), NOAELs, and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for mortality endpoint. Species are as follows: Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), golden shiner (Notemigonous crysoleucas), killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus), trahira (Hoplias malabaricus), walleye (Sander vitreus), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Species with bolded names are shown for comparison but were not used in derivation of thresholds (see Methods section). Species with underlined names are marine or brackish water species. Solid line indicates recommended protective threshold for lethality. Note that Atlantic salmon (S. salar) experiments were conducted with hatchery-reared fish in freshwater.

Figure 2.

Cumulative frequency distribution of unbounded no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs), NOAELs, and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for reproductive (open symbols) and growth-related (filled symbols) endpoints. For species names, see Fig. 1. Species with underlined names are marine or brackish water species. Solid and dashed lines represent recommended protective thresholds for growth and reproductive effects, respectively. Note that Atlantic salmon (S. salar) experiments were conducted with hatchery-reared fish in freshwater.

Figure 3.

Cumulative frequency distribution of unbounded no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs), NOAELs, and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for biochemical, histopathological, genotoxic (open symbols) and behavioral (filled symbols) endpoints. For species names, see Fig. 1. Species with bolded names are shown for comparison but were not used in derivation of thresholds (see Methods section). Species with underlined names are marine or brackish water species. Solid and dashed vertical lines represent recommended protective thresholds for behavioral and for biochemical, histological, and genomic effects, respectively. Note that Atlantic salmon (S. salar) experiments were conducted with hatchery-reared fish in freshwater.

Table 2. Summary of test conditions and effects of dietary MeHg exposure on different fish species as compiled from the literature
Species (family)AgeDiet typeDose levelWater temperature (°C)Daily rationEnd point (category)Duration (d)NOAEL (μg g−1)aLOAEL (μg g−1)Ref
  1. aUnbounded NOAEL is denoted by >.
  2. bOnly details of the experimental feeding with laboratory-prepared food are included here.
  3. cShredded northern pike from Clay Lake, Ontario, Canada.
  4. dMeHgCl injected into catfish fillets and fathead minnows.
  5. eDescribed fully in Berntssen et al. (Supplemental References S19,S20).
  6. fConversion from dry weight to wet weight equivalent using 75% moisture content.
  7. gTrout chow (Martin's Feed Mills).
  8. h5:1 mixture of pork liver and commercial trout feed, nominal concentrations (G. Wobeser, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, personal communication).
  9. iPresented as nominal (wet wt) rather than assayed concentrations.
  10. jCommercial Trout Chow (unknown origin).
  11. kStarter soft moist fish food (Nelson and Sons).
  12. lLochmann and Phillips (supplemental Reference S27).
  13. mReduced growth rate due to reduced food consumption.
  14. nSterling Silver Cup Fish food (Nelson and Sons Inc.).
  15. oDr. Bassleer biofish flakes.
  16. pShrimp (control diet), blue marlin (low diet), blue marlin and contaminated shrimp (high diet).
  17. qNutra Fry fish food (Moore-Clark).
  18. rSee reference for details.
  19. sReduced growth rate measured during time period 1 (0–35 d) when food-consumption rates were constant.
  20. tSee reference for details.
  21. uConcentrations reported as assayed amounts (S.S.O. Hung, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA, USA, personal communication).
  22. Species = test species used in experiment; age during exposure = adult (A), juvenile (J), or juvenile to adult (J-A); dose levels = number of MeHg exposure levels used (including controls); daily ration = mass of food provided per fish or percent of body weight per day; end points = end points measured (category of severity); duration = days of experimental exposure; NOAEL = no observed adverse effect level in micrograms per gram (wet wt); LOAEL = lowest observed adverse effect level in micrograms per gram (wet wt); GSI = gonadosomatic index, HSI = hepatosomic index.
Freshwater
(Percidae)
WalleyeANaturalc2NAAd lib. (2 g fish−1)Mortality (1)>276>0.417.92S13
Emaciation (2a) >0.417.92S13
↓ Response to light (3b) >0.417.92S13
WalleyeJMeHgCl (prepared)d3201–1.5 g fish−1Mortality (1)180>0.987 S14
↓ Weight gain (2a) ♂ >0.1370.987S14
↓ GSI (2b) >0.040.137S14
↓ Plasma cortisol (3a) >0.040.137S14
(Salmonidae)
Atlantic salmonJMeHgCl (purified)e39–111.6%Mortality (1)120>2.12f S19
Abnormal brain pathology (3a) >0.075f1.09fS19
Altered brain biochemistry (3a) >0.075f1.09fS19
↓ Postfeeding behavior (3b) 1.09f2.12fS19
Atlantic salmonJMeHgCl (purified)e49–112–2.6%Mortality (1)120>2.12f S20
↓ Weight (2a) >2.12f S20
↑ Intestinal pathology (3a) 0.03f0.158fS20
↑ Hematocrit (3a) 0.03f0.158fS20
Rainbow troutJMeHgCl (commercial)g410.5 ± 1.5Ad lib.Mortality (1)84>23.7f S5
↑ Lethargy (3b) 11.73f23.7fS5
Discoloration (3a) 11.73f23.7fS5
Rainbow troutJMeHgCl (commercial)h310.5 ± 1.52%Mortality (1)84>19.13f S5
↓ Weight gain (2a) >0.025f5.8fS5
↑ Lethargy (3b) 5.8f19.13fS5
Discoloration (3a) 5.8f19.13fS5
Rainbow troutJMeHgCl (commercial)h510 ± 0.73–4%Mortality (1)105>24i S7
↓ Weight (2a) 8i16iS7
Deformation of gill epithelium (3a) >0.05i4iS7
↑ Packed cell volume (blood) (3a) 8i16iS7
Internal lesions (3a) >24i S7
Altered resting position (3b) 8i16iS7
Discoloration (3a) 16i24iS7
Rainbow troutbJMeHgCl (commercial)j516∼5%Mortality (1)84–2805i25iS16
↓ Weight gain (2a) >0i1iS16
Impaired locomotion and feeding (3b) 5i25iS16
Discoloration (3a) 5i25iS16
CNS pathology (3a) 5i25iS16
(Cyprinidae)
Fathead minnowJ-AMeHgCl (commercial)k323.6 ± 0.15%Mortality (1)250>0.983f S9
↓ GSI (2b) >0.015f0.218fS9
↓ Spawning success (2b) >0.015f0.218fS9
↑ Apoptosis in ovaries (3a) >0.015f0.218fS18
↓ Sex steroids (2b) >0.015f0.218fS9
Fathead minnowJ-AMeHgCl (commercial)k425 ± 15%Mortality (1)195>2.12f S8
↓ GSI (2b) >0.015f0.22fS8
↓ Spawning success (2b) >0.015f0.22fS8
Fathead minnowJ-AMeHgCl (commercial)k325 ± 15%Mortality (1)NA>0.983f S10
↓ Spawning behavior (2b) >0.015f0.218fS10
↓ Spawning success (2b) >0.015f0.218fS10
↓ Testosterone (2b) >0.015f0.218fS10
Fathead minnowJ-AMeHgCl (commercial)k323.6 ± 0.15%Mortality (1)600>0.983f S24
 ± Gene transcription (3a) >0.015f0.218S24
Golden shinerAMeHgCl (semipurified)l3232%Mortality (1)90>0.959 S6
↓ Weight gain (2a)m >0.959 S6
Brain biochemistry (3a) >0.959 S6
↑ Shoal dispersal and settling time (3b) 0.4550.959S6
Sacramento blackfishJMeHgCl (commercial)n423 ± 11–1.3%Mortality (1)70–2475.53f13.78fS17
↓ Growth rate (2a) 5.53f13.78fS17
Discoloration (3a) >13.78f S17
O2 consumption (3a) >13.78f S17
ZebrafishA (♂)MeHgCl (commercial)o224 ± 0.55%Mortality (1)49>3.38f S25
↓ Mitochondrial metabolism (3a) >0.02f3.38fS25
ZebrafishA (♂)MeHgCl (commercial)o224 ± 0.55%Mortality (1)25>3.38f S23
 ± Gene transcription (3a) >0.02f3.38fS23
ZebrafishA (♂)MeHgCl (commercial)o324 ± 0.55%Mortality (1)63>3.38f S22
↑ SOD gene induction in muscle (3a) >0.02f0.125fS22
ZebrafishAMeHgCl (commercial)o224 ± 0.55%Mortality (1)63>3.38f S21
↑ Mitochondrial pathology (3a) >0.02f3.38fS21
Marine/Brackish
(Sciaenidae)
Atlantic croakerANaturalp322Ad lib.Mortality (1)30>0.1 S12
Altered larval behavior (2b) >00.05S12
(Fundulidae)
KillifishAMeHgCl (commercial)q522Ad lib.F0 Mortality (1)420.51.9 (♂)S11
F0 Growth (2a) >54 S11
↓ F1 fecundity (2b) >0.070.5S11
F1 Offspring sex ratio (2b) 1.95.6S11
↓ F1 Fertilization success (2b) 5.654S11
F0 Behavior (3a) 0.51.9 (♂)S11
(Acipenseridae)
Beluga sturgeonJMeHgCl (semipurified)r425NAMortality (1)701.97f4.05fS4
↓ Growth rate (2a)s 0.19f1.97fS4
Discoloration (3b) 1.97f4.05fS4
Beluga sturgeonJMeHgCl (semipurified)r425NA↑ Blood metabolites and enzyme activity (3b)32>0.01f0.19fS26
Green sturgeonJMeHgCl (semipurified)t4182–3%Mortality (1)565.13f,u9.73f,uS15
↓ Growth rate (2a) 5.13f,u9.73f,uS15
↓ HSI (2a) 9.73f,u24.3f,uS15
White sturgeonJMeHgCl (semipurified)t4182–3%Mortality (1)569.73f,u24.3f,uS15
↓ Growth rate (2a) 9.73f,u24.3f,uS15
Table 3. Summary of dietary threshold concentrations of MeHg for fish (μg g−1 wet wt)
 Highest NOAELLowest LOAELTELProposed thresholdNo. of species
  1. Highest NOAEL = the highest-ranked no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) below the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL); lowest LOAEL = the lowest-ranked LOAEL; TEL = calculated threshold effect level (see Methods section); proposed threshold = the proposed threshold level; No. test species = the number of species used to derive each quantity.
Lethal1.201.902.802.8012
Growth1.441.972.151.4410
Behavioral0.500.960.870.505
Reproductive0.040.05NA0.044
Biochemical0.050.140.140.057

Ancillary