The practical usefulness of biomarkers is limited by the complexity of linking their responses to life-history traits of the organisms (e.g., survival, growth, reproduction) over time. Here the authors present a first attempt to model biomarker responses and survival over time simultaneously with a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic approach. Even though more work is clearly needed, the present study provides a novel direction for interpreting biomarker responses and dynamically linking them to life-history traits. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1842–1845. © 2013 SETAC
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