• 1
    Giesy JP, Dobson S, Solomon KR. 2000. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup herbicide. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 167:35120.
  • 2
    Dill GM. 2005. Glyphosate-resistant crops: History, status, and future. Pest Manag Sci 61:219224.
  • 3
    Dill GM, Sammons RD, Feng PCC, Kohn F, Kretzmer K, Mehrsheikh A, Bleeke M, Honegger JL, Farmer D, Wright D, Haupfear EA. 2010. Glyphosate: Discovery, development, applications, and properties. In Nandula VK, ed, Glyphosate Resistance in Crops and Weeds. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp 133.
  • 4
    Toy A, Uhing E. 1964. Aminomethylenephosphinic acids, salts thereof, and process for their production. US4160779 A. US Patent Office Washington, DC.
  • 5
    Cakmak I, Yazici A, Tutus Y, Ozturk L. 2009. Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, manganese, magnesium, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean. Eur J Agron 31:114119.
  • 6
    Johal GS, Huber DM. 2009. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. Eur J Agron 31:144152.
  • 7
    Duke SO, Powles SB. 2008. Glyphosate: A once-in-a-century herbicide. Pest Manag Sci 64:319325.
  • 8
    Aspelin AL. 1997. Pesticides industry sales and usage—1994 and 1995 market estimates. Technical Report EPA 733/R-97/002. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 9
    Grube A, Donaldson D, Kiely T, Wu L. 2011. Pesticides industry sales and usage—2006 and 2007 market estimates. Technical Report EPA 733/R-11/001. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 10
    Brain RA, Solomon KR. 2009. Comparison of the hazards posed to amphibians by the glyphosate spray control program versus the chemical and physical activities of coca production in Colombia. J Toxicol Environ Health A 72:937948.
  • 11
    Relyea RA. 2011. Amphibians are not ready for Roundup. In Elliott JE, Bishop CA, Morrissey CA, eds, Wildlife Ecotoxicology, Vol 3. Emerging Topics in Ecotoxicology Springer, New York, NY, USA, pp 267300.
  • 12
    Champion GT, May MJ, Bennett S, Brooks DR, Clark SJ, Danieis RE, Firbank LG, Haughton AJ, Hawes C, Heard MS, Perry JN, Randle Z, Rossall MJ, Rothery P, Skellern MP, Scott RJ, Squire GR, Thomas MR. 2003. Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos T Roy Soc B 358:18011818.
  • 13
    Heimlich R, Fernandez-Cornejo J, McBride W, Klotz-Ingram C, Jans S, Brooks N. 2000. Genetically engineered crops: Has adoption reduced pesticide use? Agr Outlook 273:1317.
  • 14
    Benbrook C. 2012. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S.—The first sixteen years. Environ Sci Europe 24:24.
  • 15
    European Commission. 2002. Review report for the active substance glyphosate. Health & Consumer Protection Directorate, Brussels, Belgium.
  • 16
    US Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. R.E.D. facts—Glyphosate. EPA 738/F-93/001. Washington, DC.
  • 17
    Cox C, Surgan M. 2006. Unidentified inert ingredients in pesticides: Implications for human and environmental health. Environ Health Perspect 114:18031806.
  • 18
    Mendelson JR, Lips KR, Gagliardo RW, Rabb GB, Collins JP, Diffendorfer JE, Daszak P, Ibanez R, Zippel KC, Lawson DP, Wright KM, Stuart SN, Gascon C, da Silva HR, Burrowes PA, Joglar RL, La Marca E, Lötters S, du Preez LH, Weldon C, Hyatt A, Rodriguez-Mahecha JV, Hunt S, Robertson H, Lock B, Raxworthy CJ, Frost DR, Lacy RC, Alford RA, Campbell JA, Parra-Olea G, Bolanos F, Domingo JJC, Halliday T, Murphy JB, Wake MH, Coloma LA, Kuzmin SL, Price MS, Howell KM, Lau M, Pethiyagoda R, Boone M, Lannoo MJ, Blaustein AR, Dobson A, Griffiths RA, Crump ML, Wake DB, Brodie ED. 2006. Biodiversity—Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions. Science 313:4848.
  • 19
    Stuart SN, Hoffmann M, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Berridge RJ, Ramani P, Young BE. 2008. Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
  • 20
    Relyea RA. 2005. The lethal impact of Roundup on aquatic and terrestrial amphibians. Ecol Appl 15:11181124.
  • 21
    Bernal MH, Solomon KR, Carrasquilla G. 2009. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (Glyphos) and Cosmo-Flux to larval and juvenile Colombian frogs 2. Field and laboratory microcosm acute toxicity. J Toxicol Env Health A 72:966973.
  • 22
    Edwards WM, Triplett GB Jr, Kramer RM. 1980. A watershed study of glyphosate transport in runoff. J Environ Qual 9:661665.
  • 23
    Peruzzo PJ, Porta AA, Ronco AE. 2008. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina. Environ Pollut 156:6166.
  • 24
    Davidson C. 2004. Declining downwind: Amphibian population declines in California and historical pesticide use. Ecol Appl 14:18921902.
  • 25
    Davidson C, Shaffer HB, Jennings MR. 2002. Spatial tests of the pesticide drift, habitat destruction, UV-B, and climate-change hypotheses for California amphibian declines. Conserv Biol 16:15881601.
  • 26
    Davidson C, Shaffer HB, Jennings MR. 2001. Declines of the California red-legged frog: Climate, UV-B, habitat, and pesticides hypotheses. Ecol Appl 11:464479.
  • 27
    Brühl CA, Pieper S, Weber B. 2011. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:24652472.
  • 28
    McComb BC, Curtis L, Chambers CL, Newton M, Bentson K. 2008. Acute toxic hazard evaluations of glyphosate herbicide on terrestrial vertebrates of the Oregon coast range. Environ Sci Pollut Res 15:266272.
  • 29
    Duellmann WE, Trueb L. 1994. Biology of Amphibians. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
  • 30
    Quaranta A, Bellantuono V, Cassano G, Lippe C. 2009. Why amphibians are more sensitive than mammals to xenobiotics. PLoS One 4:e7699.
  • 31
    Mann RM, Hyne RV, Choung CB, Wilson SP. 2009. Amphibians and agricultural chemicals: Review of the risks in a complex environment. Environ Pollut 157:29032927.
  • 32
    Feng JC, Thompson DG, Reynolds PE. 1990. Fate of glyphosate in a Canadian forest watershed. 1. Aquatic residues and off-target deposit assessment. J Agr Food Chem 38:11101118.
  • 33
    Morillo E, Undabeytia T, Maqueda C, Ramos A. 2002. The effect of dissolved glyphosate upon the sorption of copper by three selected soils. Chemosphere 47:747752.
  • 34
    Borggaard OK, Gimsing AL. 2008. Fate of glyphosate in soil and the possibility of leaching to ground and surface waters: A review. Pest Manag Sci 64:441456.
  • 35
    Mamy L, Gabrielle B, Barriuso E. 2010. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops. Environ Pollut 158:31723178.
  • 36
    Rueppel ML, Brightwell BB, Schaefer J, Marvel JT. 1977. Metabolism and degradation of glyphosate in soil and water. J Agr Food Chem 25:517528.
  • 37
    Dion HM, Harsh JB, Hill HH. 2001. Competitive sorption between glyphosate and inorganic phosphate on clay minerals and low organic matter soils. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:385390.
  • 38
    Gimsing AL, Borggaard OK. 2002. Competitive adsorption and desorption of glyphosate and phosphate on clay silicates and oxides. Clay Miner 37:509515.
  • 39
    Gimsing AL, Borggaard OK. 2002. Effect of phosphate on the adsorption of glyphosate on soils, clay minerals and oxides. Int J Environ Anal Chem 82:545552.
  • 40
    Bott S, Tesfamariam T, Kania A, Eman B, Aslan N, Roemheld V, Neumann G. 2011. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate soil residues re-mobilised by phosphate fertilisation. Plant Soil 342:249263.
  • 41
    Kjaer J, Olsen P, Ullum M, Grant R. 2005. Leaching of glyphosate and amino-methylphosphonic acid from Danish agricultural field sites. J Environ Qual 34:608620.
  • 42
    Skark C, Zullei-Seibert N, Schottler U, Schlett C. 1998. The occurrence of glyphosate in surface water. Int J Environ Anal Chem 70:93104.
  • 43
    Relyea RA. 2006. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities—Response. Ecol Appl 16:20272034.
  • 44
    Baker KN. 1985. Laboratory and field experiments on the responses by two species of woodland salamanders to malathion-treated substrates. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 14:685691.
  • 45
    Tsui MTK, Chu LM. 2008. Environmental fate and non-target impact of glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup) in a subtropical wetland. Chemosphere 71:439446.
  • 46
    Chang F-C, Simcik M, Capel P. 2011. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:548555.
  • 47
    Scribner EA, Battaglin WA, Gilliom RJ, Meyer MT. 2007. Concentrations of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate in ground- and surface-water, rainfall, and soil samples collected in the United States, 2001–2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5122. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.
  • 48
    Chang F-C, Simcik MF, Capel PD. 2011. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:548555.
  • 49
    Kaiser K. 2011. Preliminary study of pesticide drift into the Maya Mountain protected areas of Belize. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86:5659.
  • 50
    Struger J, Thompson D, Staznik B, Martin P, McDaniel T, Marvin C. 2008. Occurrence of glyphosate in surface waters of southern Ontario. B Environ Contam Tox 80:378384.
  • 51
    Coupe RH, Kalkhoff SJ, Capel PD, Gregoire C. 2012. Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins. Pest Manag Sci 68:1630.
  • 52
    Trumbo J. 2005. An assessment of the hazard of a mixture of the herbicide Rodeo and the non-ionic surfactant R-11 to aquatic invertebrates and larval amphibians. Calif Fish Game 91:3846.
  • 53
    Smith GR. 2001. Effects of acute exposure to a commercial formulation of glyphosate on the tadpoles of two species of anurans. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 67:483488.
  • 54
    Comstock BA, Sprinkle SL, Smith GR. 2007. Actue toxic effects of Round-Up herbicide on wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica). J Freshw Ecol 22:705708.
  • 55
    Williams BK, Semlitsch RD. 2010. Larval responses of three midwestern anurans to chronic, low-dose exposures of four herbicides. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:819827.
  • 56
    Battaglin WA, Rice KC, Focazio MJ, Salmons S, Barry RX. 2009. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005–2006. Environ Monit Assess 155:281307.
  • 57
    Thompson DG, Wojtaszek BF, Staznik B, Chartrand DT, Stephenson GR. 2004. Chemical and biomonitoring to assess potential acute effects of Vision herbicide on native amphibian larvae in forest wetlands. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:843849.
  • 58
    Mann RM, Bidwell JR. 1999. The toxicity of glyphosate and several glyphosate formulations to four species of southwestern Australian frogs. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:193199.
  • 59
    Edginton AN, Sheridan PM, Stephenson GR, Thompson DG, Boermans HJ. 2004. Comparative effects of pH and Vision herbicide on two life stages of four anuran amphibian species. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:815822.
  • 60
    Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. 2010. Glyphosate—Comments from Germany on the paper by Paganelli, A. et al. (2010) “Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling.” In Lebensmittelsicherheit. Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, Braunschweig, Germany, pp 8.
  • 61
    Mann RM, Bidwell JR, Tyler MJ. 2003. Toxicity of herbicide formulations to frogs and the implications for product registration: A case study from Western Australia. Appl Herpetol 1:1322.
  • 62
    Thompson DG, Solomon KR, Wojtaszek BF, Edginton AN, Stephenson GR. 2006. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecol Appl 16:20222027.
  • 63
    Rohr JR, McCoy K. 2010. A qualitative meta-analysis reveals consistent effects of atrazine on freshwater fish and amphibians. Environ Health Perspect 118:2032.
  • 64
    Gurevitch J, Hedges L. 1993. Meta-analysis: Combining the results of independent experiments. In Scheiner SM, Gurevitch J, eds, The Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY, USA, pp 378398.
  • 65
    de Silva A. 2009. The Incidence and Pattern of Malformations, Abnormalities, Injuries, and Parasitic Infection of Amphibians in Sri Lanka (Preliminary Findings). Final Report. Amphibian Specialists Group, Washington DC.
  • 66
    Dinehart SK, Smith LM, McMurry ST, Anderson TA, Smith PN, Haukos DA. 2009. Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA. Sci Total Environ 407:10651071.
  • 67
    Bidwell JR, Gorrie JR. 1995. Acute toxicity of a herbicide to selected frog species. Technical Series 79. Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, Australia.
  • 68
    Relyea RA, Jones DK. 2009. The toxicity of Roundup OriginalMAX to 13 species of larval amphibians. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:20042008.
  • 69
    King JJ, Wagner RS. 2010. Toxic effects of Roundup Regular on Pacific Northwestern amphibians. Northwestern Nat 91:318324.
  • 70
    Tsui MTK, Chu LM. 2003. Aquatic toxicity of glyphosate-based formulations: Comparison between different organisms and the effects of environmental factors. Chemosphere 52:11891197.
  • 71
    Brausch JM, Beall B, Smith PN. 2007. Acute and sub-lethal toxicity of three polyethoxylated alkylamine surfactant formulations to Daphnia magna. B Environ Contam Tox 78:510514.
  • 72
    Brausch JM, Smith PN. 2007. Toxicity of three polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant formulations to laboratory and field collected fairy shrimp, Thamnocephalus platyurus. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52:217221.
  • 73
    Howe CM, Berrill M, Pauli BD, Helbing CC, Werry K, Veldhoen N. 2004. Toxicity of glyphosate-based pesticides to four North American frog species. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:19281938.
  • 74
    Perkins PJ, Boermans HJ, Stephenson GR. 2000. Toxicity of glyphosate and triclopyr using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:940945.
  • 75
    Hedberg D, Wallin M. 2010. Effects of Roundup and glyphosate formulations on intracellular transport, microtubules and actin filaments in Xenopus laevis melanophores. Toxicol In Vitro 24:795802.
  • 76
    Dinehart SK, Smith LM, McMurry ST, Smith PN, Anderson TA, Haukos DA. 2010. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA. Environ Pollut 158:26102617.
  • 77
    Lajmanovich RC, Attademo AM, Peltzer PM, Junges CM, Cabagna MC. 2011. Toxicity of four herbicide formulations with glyphosate on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles: B-Esterases and glutathione S-transferase inhibitors. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 60:681689.
  • 78
    Costa M, Monteiro D, Oliveira-Neto A, Rantin F, Kalinin A. 2008. Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original. Ecotoxicology 17:153163.
  • 79
    Gosner KL. 1960. A simple table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica 16:183190.
  • 80
    Hammond JI, Jones DK, Stephens PR, Relyea RA. 2012. Phylogeny meets ecotoxicology: Evolutionary patterns of sensitivity to a common insecticide. Evol Appl 5:593606.
  • 81
    Bridges CM, Semlitsch RD. 2000. Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles among and within species of ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conserv Biol 14:14901499.
  • 82
    Bridges CM, Semlitsch RD. 2001. Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala): Implications for amphibian conservation. Copeia 1:713.
  • 83
    Semlitsch RD, Bridges CM, Welch AM. 2000. Genetic variation and a fitness tradeoff in the tolerance of gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles to the insecticide carbaryl. Oecologia 125:179185.
  • 84
    Fuentes L, Moore LJ, Rodgers JH Jr, Bowerman WW, Yarrow GK, Chao WY. 2011. Comparative toxicity of two glyphosate formulations (original formulation of Roundup and Roundup WeatherMAX) to six North American larval anurans. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:27562761.
  • 85
    Lajmanovich RC, Sandoval MT, Peltzer PM. 2003. Induction of mortality and malformation in Scinax nasicus tadpoles exposed to glyphosate formulations. B Environ Contam Tox 70:612618.
  • 86
    Quassinti L, Maccari E, Murri O, Bramucci M. 2009. Effects of paraquat and glyphosate on steroidogenesis in gonads of the frog Rana esculenta in vitro. Pestic Biochem Phys 93:9195.
  • 87
    Cauble K, Wagner RS. 2005. Sublethal effects of the herbicide glyphosate on amphibian metamorphosis and development. B Environ Contam Tox 75:429435.
  • 88
    Van Buskirk J, Relyea RA. 1998. Selection for phenotypic plasticity in Rana sylvatica tadpoles. Biol J Linn Soc 65:301328.
  • 89
    Relyea RA. 2004. Fine-tuned phenotypes: Tadpole plasticity under 16 combinations of predators and competitors. Ecology 85:172179.
  • 90
    Brodman R, Newman WD, Laurie K, Osterfeld S, Lenzo N. 2010. Interaction of an aquatic herbicide and predatory salamander density on wetland communities. J Herpetol 44:6982.
  • 91
    Paganelli A, Gnazzo V, Acosta H, Lopez SL, Carrasco AE. 2010. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling. Chem Res Toxicol 23:15861595.
  • 92
    Relyea RA. 2012. New effects of Roundup on amphibians: Predators reduce herbicide mortality; herbicides induce antipredator morphology. Ecol Appl 22:634647.
  • 93
    Samsel A, Seneff S. 2013. Glyphosate's suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: Pathways to modern diseases. Entropy 15:14161463.
  • 94
    Clements C, Ralph S, Petras M. 1997. Genotoxicity of select herbicides in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles using the alkaline single-cell gel DNA electrophoresis (comet) assay. Environ Mol Mutagen 29:277288.
  • 95
    Bosch B, Mañas F, Gorla N, Aiassa D. 2011. Micronucleus test in post metamorphic Odontophrynus cordobae and Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia: Anura) for environmental monitoring. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 3:155163.
  • 96
    Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Fernandez-Beneitez MJ, Lizana M, Marco A. 2011. Influence of a combination of agricultural chemicals on embryos of the endangered gold-striped salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 60:672680.
  • 97
    Mann RM, Bidwell JR. 2000. Application of the FETAX protocol to assess the developmental toxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylate to Xenopus laevis and two Australian frogs. Aquat Toxicol 51:1929.
  • 98
    Lenkowski JR, Sanchez-Bravo G, McLaughlin KA. 2010. Low concentrations of atrazine, glyphosate, 2: 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and triadimefon exposures have diverse effects on Xenopus laevis organ morphogenesis. J Environ Sci 22:13051308.
  • 99
    Gutleb AC, Appelman J, Bronkhorst M, van den Berg JHJ, Murk AJ. 2000. Effects of oral exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development and metamorphosis of two amphibian species (Xenopus laevis and Rana temporaria). Sci Total Environ 262:147157.
  • 100
    Takahashi M. 2007. Oviposition site selection: Pesticide avoidance by gray treefrogs. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:14761480.
  • 101
    Wagner N, Lötters S. 2013. Effects of water contamination on site selection by amphibians: Experiences from an arena approach with European frogs and newts. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol doi: 10.1007/s00244-013-9873-9.
  • 102
    Relyea RA. 2005. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecol Appl 15:618627.
  • 103
    Jones DK, Hammond JI, Relyea RA. 2011. Competitive stress can make the herbicide Roundup more deadly to larval amphibians. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:446454.
  • 104
    Jones DK, Hammond JI, Relyea RA. 2010. Roundup and amphibians: The importance of concentration, application time, and stratification. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:20162025.
  • 105
    Relyea RA. 2009. A cocktail of contaminants: How mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities. Oecologia 159:363376.
  • 106
    Relyea RA. 2004. Growth and survival of five amphibian species exposed to combinations of pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:17371742.
  • 107
    Chen CY, Hathaway KM, Folt CL. 2004. Multiple stress effects of Vision herbicide, pH, and food on zooplankton and larval amphibian species from forest wetlands. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:823831.
  • 108
    Puglis H, Boone M. 2011. Effects of technical-grade active ingredient vs. commercial formulation of seven pesticides in the presence or absence of UV radiation on survival of green frog tadpoles. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 60:145155.
  • 109
    Rohr JR, Raffel TR, Sessions SK, Hudson PJ. 2008. Understanding the net effects of pesticides on amphibian trematode infections. Ecol Appl 18:17431753.
  • 110
    Edge CB, Gahl MK, Pauli BD, Thompson DG, Houlahan JE. 2011. Exposure of juvenile green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) in littoral enclosures to a glyphosate-based herbicide. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:13631369.
  • 111
    Paetow LJ, Daniel McLaughlin J, Cue RI, Pauli BD, Marcogliese DJ. 2012. Effects of herbicides and the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on the health of post-metamorphic northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 80:372380.
  • 112
    Edge CB, Gahl MK, Thompson DG, Houlahan JE. 2013. Laboratory and field exposure of two species of juvenile amphibians to a glyphosate-based herbicide and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Sci Total Environ 444:145152.
  • 113
    Gahl MK, Pauli BD, Houlahan JE. 2011. Effects of chytrid fungus and a glyphosate-based herbicide on survival and growth of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). Ecol Appl 21:25212529.
  • 114
    Relyea RA. 2005. The lethal impacts of Roundup and predatory stress on six species of North American tadpoles. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:351357.
  • 115
    Relyea RA. 2003. Predator cues and pesticides: A double dose of danger for amphibians. Ecol Appl 13:15151521.
  • 116
    Relyea RA, Mills N. 2001. Predator-induced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more deadly to gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). P Natl Acad Sci USA 98:24912496.
  • 117
    Gubbins M, Huet M, Mann R, Minier C. 2013. Impairments of endocrine functions: Case studies. In Amiard-Triquet C, Rainbow P, Roméo M, eds, Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects. CRC Press, London, UK, pp 219252.
  • 118
    Storrs SI, Semlitsch RD. 2008. Variation in somatic and ovarian development: Predicting susceptibility of amphibians to estrogenic contaminants. Gen Comp Endocrinol 156:524530.
  • 119
    Kloas W, Lutz I, Springer T, Krueger H, Wolf J, Holden L, Hosmer A. 2009. Does atrazine influence larval development and sexual differentiation in Xenopus laevis? Toxicol Sci 107:376384.
  • 120
    Solomon KR, Carr JA, Du Preez LH, Giesy JP, Kendall RJ, Smith EE, Van Der Kraak GJ. 2008. Effects of atrazine on fish, amphibians, and aquatic reptiles: A critical review. Crit Rev Toxicol 38:721772.
  • 121
    Schuytema GS, Nebeker AV. 1998. Comparative toxicity of diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog, bullfrog, red-legged frog, and African clawed frog embryos and tadpoles. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34:370376.
  • 122
    Schuytema GS, Nebeker AV. 1999. Comparative toxicity of ammonium and nitrate compounds to pacific treefrog and African clawed frog tadpoles. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:22512257.
  • 123
    Schuytema GS, Nebeker AV, Griffis WL, Wilson KN. 1991. Teratogenesis, toxicity, and bioconcentration in frogs exposed to dieldrin. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 21:332350.
  • 124
    Mann RM, Bidwell JR. 2001. The acute toxicity of agricultural surfactants to the tadpoles of four Australian and, two exotic frogs. Environ Pollut 114:195205.
  • 125
    Sih A, Bell AM, Kerby JL. 2004. Two stressors are far deadlier than one. Trends Ecol Evol 19:274276.
  • 126
    Aldrich A. 2009. Sensitivity of amphibians to pesticides. Agrarforschung 16:466471.
  • 127
    Brühl CA, Schmidt T, Pieper S, Alscher A. 2013. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: An underestimated cause of global decline? Sci Rep 3:1135.
  • 128
    Boone MD, Cowman D, Davidson C, Hayes T, Hopkins W, Relyea RA, Schiesari L, Semlitsch R. 2007. Evaluating the role of environmental contamination in amphibian population declines. In Gascon C, Collins JP, Moore RD, Church DR, McKay JE, Mendelson JRI, eds, Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, pp 3236.
  • 129
    Collins JP, Storfer A. 2003. Global amphibian declines: Sorting the hypotheses. Divers Distrib 9:8998.
  • 130
    Houlahan JE, Findlay CS, Schmidt BR, Meyer AH, Kuzmin SL. 2000. Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature 404:752755.
  • 131
    La Marca E, Lips KR, Lötters S, Puschendorf R, Ibáñez R, Rueda-Almonacid JV, Schulte R, Marty C, Castro F, Manzanilla-Puppo J, García-Pérez JE, Bolaños F, Chaves G, Pounds JA, Toral E, Young BE. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37:190201.
  • 132
    Wells KD. 1977. The social behaviour of anuran amphibians. Anim Behav 25:666693.
  • 133
    Dürr S, Berger G, Kretschmer H. 1999. Effekte acker- und pflanzenbaulicher Bewirtschaftung auf Amphibien und Empfehlungen für die Bewirtschaftung in Amphibien-Reproduktionszentren. RANA Sonderheft 3:101116.
  • 134
    Schmidt BR. 2004. Pesticides, mortality and population growth rate. Trends Ecol Evol 19:459460.
  • 135
    Forbes VE, Calow P. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357:12991306.
  • 136
    Veith M, Viertel B. 1993. Veränderungen an den Extremitäten von Larven und Jungtieren der Erdkröte (Bufo bufo): Analyse möglicher Ursachen. Salamandra 29:184199.
  • 137
    Smith DC. 1987. Adult recruitment in chorus frogs: Effects of size and date at metamorphosis. Ecology 68:344350.
  • 138
    Goater CP. 1994. Growth and survival of postmetamorphic toads: Interactions among larval history, density, and parasitism. Ecology 75:22642274.
  • 139
    Altwegg R, Reyer H-U. 2003. Patterns of natural selection on size at metamorphosis in water frogs. Evolution 57:872882.
  • 140
    Semlitsch RD, Scott DE, Pechmann JHK. 1988. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum. Ecology 69:184192.
  • 141
    Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. 2010. Die grüne Gentechnik—Ein Überblick. Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, Berlin, Germany.
  • 142
    Pengue WA. 2005. Transgenic crops in Argentina: The ecological and social debt. B Sci Technol Soc 25:314322.
  • 143
    Vonesh JR, De la Cruz O. 2000. Modeling the effect of UV-B induced egg-stage mortality on the population dynamics of the common toad. Am Zool 40:12461247.
  • 144
    Vonesh J, De la Cruz O. 2002. Complex life cycles and density dependence: Assessing the contribution of egg mortality to amphibian declines. Oecologia 133:325333.
  • 145
    Glandt D. 2004. Der Laubfrosch. Laurenti Verlag, Bielefeld, Germany.
  • 146
    Brodeur JC, Suarez RP, Natale GS, Ronco AE, Zaccagnini ME. 2011. Reduced body condition and enzymatic alterations in frogs inhabiting intensive crop production areas. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:13701380.
  • 147
    Böll S, Schmidt BR, Veith M, Wagner N, Rödder D, Weimann C, Kirschey T, Lötters S. 2013. Anuran amphibians as indicators for changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems following GM crop cultivation: A monitoring guideline. Bio Risk doi: 10.3897/biorisk.<<.3251.
  • 148
    Solomon K, Thompson D. 2003. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate. J Toxicol Environ Health B 6:289324.
  • 149
    Newton M, Howard KM, Kelpsas BR, Danhaus R, Lottman CM, Dubelman S. 1984. Fate of glyphosate in an Oregon forest ecosystem. J Agr Food Chem 32:11441151.
  • 150
    Newton M, Horner LM, Cowell JE, White DE, Cole EC. 1994. Dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in North American forests. J Agr Food Chem 42:17951802.
  • 151
    Tregouet B. 2006. Les pesticides dans les eaux: données 2003 et 2004. Institut français de l'environnement, Orléans, France.
  • 152
    Wojtaszek BF, Staznik B, Chartrand DT, Stephenson GR, Thompson DG. 2004. Effects of Vision herbicide on mortality, avoidance response, and growth of amphibian larvae in two forest wetlands. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:832842.
  • 153
    Bernal MH, Solomon KR, Carrasquilla G. 2009. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (Glyphos) and Cosmo-Flux to larval Colombian frogs 1. Laboratory acute toxicity. J Toxicol Env Health A 72:961965.