In an attempt to investigate the reproductive toxicity of norfloxacin in Japanese quail, male quail were given norfloxacin at 20 mg/kg body weight for 14 d. Then reproductive function and androgen receptor (AR) gene expression was examined in treated and control birds. The results of the present study indicate that fertility, cloacal gland area, sperm concentration, and serum testosterone were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) on day 14 in the norfloxacin-treated birds. Upregulation (p < 0.05) of AR mRNA was also seen in the testes on the 14th d of treatment. A trend toward downregulation of AR mRNA was seen in the cloacal gland of norfloxacin-treated birds. Histological observations revealed that norfloxacin induces cellular atrophy in testes and changes in glandular tissue in the cloacal gland. The results of the present study demonstrate that norfloxacin induces testicular toxicity in Japanese quail. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2134–2138. © 2013 SETAC
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