SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Hermens J, Leeuwangh P, Musch A. 1985. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 9:321326.
  • 2
    Mileson BE, Chambers JE, Chen WL, Dettbarn W, Enrich M, Eldefrawi AT, Gaylor DW, Hamernik K, Hodgson E, Karczmar AG, Padilla S, Pope CN, Richardson RJ, Saunders DR, Sheets LP, Sultatos LG, Wallace KB. 1998. Common mechanism of toxicity: A case study of organophosphorous pesticides. Toxicol Sci 41:820.
  • 3
    Henschler D, Bolt HM, Jonker D, Pieters MN, Groten JP. 1996. Experimental designs and risk assessment in combination toxicology: Panel discussion. Food Chem Toxicol 34:11831185.
  • 4
    Loewe S, Muischnek H. 1926. Über Kombinationswirkungen. 1. Mitteilung: Hilfsmittel der Fragestellung. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 114:313326.
  • 5
    Bliss CI. 1939. The toxicity of poisons applied jointly. Ann Appl Biol. 26:585615.
  • 6
    Greco WR, Bravo G, Parsons JC. 1995. The search for synergy: A critical review from a response surface perspective. Pharmacol Rev 47:331385.
  • 7
    Altenburger R, Backhaus T, Boedeker W, Faust M, Scholze M, Grimme LH. 2000. Predictability of the toxicity of multiple chemical mixtures to Vibrio fischeri: Mixtures composed of similarly acting chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:23412347.
  • 8
    Backhaus T, Altenburger R, Boedeker W, Faust M, Scholze M, Grimme LH. 2000. Predictability of the toxicity of a multiple mixtures of dissimilarly acting chemicals to Vibrio fischeri. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:23482356.
  • 9
    Faust M, Altenburger R, Backhaus T, Boedeker W, Scholze M, Grimme LH. 2000. Predictive assessment of the aquatic toxicity of multiple chemical mixtures. J Environ Qual 29:10631068.
  • 10
    Scholze M, Boedeker W, Faust M, Backhaus T, Altenburger R, Grimme LH. 2001. A general best-fit method for concentration-response curves and the estimation of low-effect concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:448457.
  • 11
    Faust M, Altenburger R, Backhaus T, Blanck H, Boedeker W, Gramatica P, Hamer V, Scholze M, Vighi M, Grimme LH. 2001. Predicting the joint algal toxicity and of multi-component s-triazine mixtures at low-effect concentrations of individual toxicants. Aquatic Toxicol 56:1332.
  • 12
    Walter H, Consolaro F, Gramatica P, Scholze M, Altenburger R. 2002. Mixture toxicity of priority pollutants at no observed effect concentrations (NOECs). Ecotoxicology 11:299310.
  • 13
    Belden JB, Gilliom RJ, Lydy MJ. 2007. How well can we predict the toxicity of pesticide mixtures to aquatic life? Integr Environ Assess Manag 3:364372.
  • 14
    Kortenkamp A, Backhaus T, Faust M. 2009. State of the art report on mixture toxicity. Final Report to the European Commission under Contract Number 070307/2007/485103/ETU/D.1. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. [cited 04 June 2013]. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/pdf/report_Mixture%20toxicity.pdf
  • 15
    Altenburger R, Walter H, Grote M. 2004. What contributes to the combined effect of a complex mixture? Environ Sci Technol 38:63536362.
  • 16
    Escher BI, Fenner K. 2011. Recent advances in the environmental risk assessment of transformation products. Environ Sci Technol 45:38353847.
  • 17
    Holmstrup M, Bindesbøl A-M, Oostingh GJ, Duschl A, Scheil V, Köhler H-R, Loureiro S, Soares AMVM, Ferreira ALG, Kienle C, Gerhardt A, Laskowski R, Kramarz PE, Bayley M, Svendsen C, Spurgeon DJ. 2010. Interactions between effects of environmental chemicals and natural stressors: A review. Science Tot Environ 408:37463762.
  • 18
    European Commission. 2012. Toxicity and assessment of chemical mixtures. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. [cited 04 June 2013]. Available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/environmental_risks/docs/scher_o_155.pdf
  • 19
    US Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Framework for cumulative risk assessment. EPA/630/P-02/001F. Washington, DC. [cited 04 June 2013]. Available online at: http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/pdfs/frmwrk_cum_risk_assmnt.pdf
  • 20
    Meek BE, Boobis AR, Crofton KM, Heinemeyer G, Van Raaij M, Vickers C. 2011. Risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals: A WHO/IPCS framework. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 60:S1S14.
  • 21
    Backhaus T, Faust M. 2012. Predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures: A conceptual framework. Environ Sci Technol 46:25642573.
  • 22
    Ankley G, Bennett RS, Erickson RJ, Hoff DJ, Hornung MW, Johnson RD, Mount DR, Nichols JW, Russom CL, Schmieder PK, Serrano JA, Tietge JE, Villeneuve DL. 2010. Adverse outcome pathways: A conceptual framework to support ecotoxicological research and risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:730741.
  • 23
    Altenburger R, Scholz S, Schmitt-Jansen M, Busch W, Escher BI. 2012. Mixture toxicity revisited from a toxicogenomic perspective. Environ Sci Technol 46:25082522.
  • 24
    Knauert S, Escher B, Singer H, Hollender J, Knauer K. 2008. Mixture toxicity of three photosystem II inhibitors (atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron) toward photosynthesis of freshwater phytoplankton studied in outdoor mesocosms. Environ Sci Technol 42:64246430.
  • 25
    Lee J-H, Landrum PF. 2006. Development of a multi-component damage assessment model (MDAM) for time-dependent mixture toxicity with toxicokinetic interactions. Environ Sci Technol 40:13411349.
  • 26
    Lioy PJ, Rappaport SM. 2011. Exposure science and the exposome: An opportunity for coherence in the environmental health sciences. Environ Health Perspect 119:A466467.
  • 27
    Borgmann U, Norwood WP, Dixon DG. 2008. Modelling bioaccumulation and toxicity of metal mixtures. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14:266289.
  • 28
    Altenburger R. 2011. Understanding combined effects for metal co-exposure in ecotoxicology. In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RKO, eds Metal Ions in Toxicology: Effects, Interactions, Interdependencies. Metal Ions in Life Sciences, Vol 8. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK pp 126.