Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage


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Zebrafish embryos have been used increasingly to evaluate nanomaterial toxicity. The present study compared phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles with zebrafish at 4 life stages (embryos, yolk-sac larvae, free-swimming larvae, and juvenile) under simulated sunlight using the 96-h standard toxicity assay. Yolk-sac larvae were found to be the most sensitive to TiO2 phototoxicity, suggesting that the widely used zebrafish embryo test may not fully or accurately predict hazard and risk of these nanoparticles to small fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2139–2143. © 2013 SETAC