Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants

Authors

  • Maja A. Larsson,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Stijn Baken,

    1. Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
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  • Jon Petter Gustafsson,

    1. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    2. Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Golshid Hadialhejazi,

    1. Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Erik Smolders

    1. Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
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Address correspondence to maja.larsson@slu.se.

Abstract

Vanadium, V, is a redox-sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota, and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting properties were spiked with 7 different doses (3.2–3200 mg V kg−1) of dissolved vanadate, and toxicity was measured with 2 microbial and 3 plant assays. The median effective concentration (EC50) thresholds of the microbial assays ranged from 28 mg added V kg−1 to 690 mg added V kg−1, and the EC50s in the plant assays ranged from 18 mg added V kg−1 to 510 mg added V kg−1. The lower thresholds were in the concentration range of the background vanadium in the untreated control soils (15–58 mg V kg−1). The vanadium toxicity to plants decreased with a stronger soil vanadium sorption strength. The EC50 values for plants expressed on a soil solution basis ranged from 0.8 mg V L−1 to 15 mg V L−1 and were less variable among soils than corresponding values based on total vanadium in soil. It is concluded that sorption decreases the toxicity of added vanadate and that soil solution vanadium is a more robust measure to determine critical vanadium concentrations across soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2266–2273. © 2013 SETAC

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