Optimizing fluorescent protein choice for transgenic embryonic medaka models


Address correspondence to lemkine@watchfrog.fr.


Early-life-stage transgenic medaka are recognized as a pertinent model by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and are noncompliant with the European definition of a laboratory animal. However, autofluorescence confounds readout of fluorescent biomarkers. The authors determined the fluorescence emission spectrum of different embryonic stages of medaka submitted to a range of excitation wavelengths. This allows selection of high signal-to-noise ratio fluorescent proteins and combining multiple biomarkers within a single embryo. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2396–2401. © 2013 SETAC