Effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol, fluoxetine, and the mixture on life history traits and population growth rates in a freshwater gastropod



Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), some of which have endocrine-disrupting effects at environmentally relevant concentrations, have been detected in many surface waters. The authors evaluated the effects of 2 common endocrine disrupting PPCPs on the life history traits of the snail, Physa pomilia, using a life table response experiment with snails raised in environmentally relevant concentrations of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), fluoxetine, or their mixture. Exposure to fluoxetine or the mixture reduced snail reproduction, but EE2 did not. Generally, individual life history traits were affected minimally by the PPCPs, but when integrated using a demographic model, all 3 chemical exposure scenarios decreased population growth rates, with the EE2 and fluoxetine mixture causing the most adverse effects. Overall, the results provide additional insight into the effects of PPCPs on freshwater invertebrates and point to the importance of testing simultaneous exposures to multiple PPCPs. In addition, using a demographic model to integrate individual endpoints provided insights into effects that were not apparent from individual life history traits alone and suggest at least a potential for adverse ecological effects under realistic environmental exposures concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2771–2778. © 2013 SETAC