• Synthetic musk fragrances;
  • Human blood;
  • China


We measured two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene) and musk ketone) and five polycyclic musk fragrances (galaxolide [HHCB], tonalide [AHTN], celestolide [ADBI], traseolide [ATII], and phantolide [AHMI]) in human blood samples from 11 cities of China (n = 204). Possible temporal trends in musk concentrations and associations with personal factors, such as gender, age, and others, were studied. Galaxolide (HHCB) showed the highest median concentration (0.85 ng/g) followed by AHTN (0.53 ng/g) with high detection frequency (91 and 77%, respectively). Concentrations of the other synthetic musk fragrances, including musk ketone and musk xylene, were all below the quantification limits. The results suggested that musk concentrations were not significantly relative to gender and body weight but positively correlated with age groups and locations. Apparent differences were also observed in the ratios of HHCB to AHTN concentrations among different cities. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1877–1882. © 2010 SETAC