Influence of black carbon and chemical planarity on bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants

Authors

  • Sari Pehkonen,

    1. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA
    2. Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland
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  • Jing You,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China
    • State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China.
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  • Jarkko Akkanen,

    1. Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland
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  • Jussi V.K. Kukkonen,

    1. Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland
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  • Michael J. Lydy

    1. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA
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Abstract

Black carbon (BC) and chemical properties may play a significant role in defining the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment. In the current study, bioavailability of four HOCs with differing planarity was determined in sediments amended with two types of BC (soot and charcoal) at different concentrations by matrix solid-phase microextraction (matrix-SPME) and bioaccumulation testing using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Furthermore, the applicability of the matrix-SPME method to bioavailability estimation in BC-amended sediment was tested. The charcoal treatment significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of the planar compounds (3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl and benzo[a]pyrene) in L. variegatus, and the matrix-SPME method showed a similar trend as contaminant bioaccumulation in L. variegatus. Conversely, manipulation of sediment with soot had no effect or slightly increased bioavailability of the planar compounds in both bioaccumulation and matrix-SPME tests. Little if any affect was noted in bioavailability of the nonplanar compounds (2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl and permethrin) with the soot and charcoal amendments. Results showed that the role of BC in defining bioavailability of HOCs depends not only on the type and concentrations of BC present, but also the planarity of the HOCs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1976–1983. © 2010 SETAC

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