Source contributions and spatiotemporal characteristics of PAHs in sediments: Using three-way source apportionment approach

Authors

  • Ying-Ze Tian,

    1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
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  • Guo-Liang Shi,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
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  • Gui-Rong Liu,

    1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
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  • Chang-Sheng Guo,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, and Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xing Peng,

    1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
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  • Jian Xu,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, and Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Yuan Zhang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, and Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Yin-Chang Feng

    1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
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Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were measured in sediments from 29 sites throughout Taihu Lake in China during 2 seasons to investigate spatiotemporal characteristics and source contributions using a 3-way source apportionment approach to positive matrix factorization (PMF3). Seasonal and spatial variations of levels and toxicity suggested higher individual carcinogenic PAH concentrations and toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in the flooding season. Three-way PAHs dataset (PAH species, spatial variability, and seasonal variability) was analyzed by PMF3, and its results were compared with a widely used 2-way model (PMF2). Consistent results were observed: vehicular emission was the most important contributor (67.08% by PMF2 and 61.83% by PMF3 for the flooding season; 54.21% by PMF2 and 52.94% by PMF3 for dry season), followed by coal combustion and wood combustion in both seasons. The PMF-cluster analysis was employed to investigate spatial variability of source contributions. Findings can introduce the 3-way approach to apportion sources of PAHs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments, offering the advantage of accounting for information on 3-way datasets. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1747–1753. © 2014 SETAC

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