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Keywords:

  • Carbamate;
  • Amphibian decline;
  • Bufo americanus;
  • Multiple exposures

Abstract

The present study evaluates whether larval density and aquatic exposure to the insecticide carbaryl influenced susceptibility to terrestrial exposure of carbaryl through effects on juvenile feeding ability, growth, and survival with metamorphs of American toads (Bufo americanus). Tadpoles were reared in outdoor mesocosms, and individuals were brought into the lab at metamorphosis for terrestrial exposure studies. The present study indicated that feeding and survival of toads after metamorphosis was not affected by earlier aquatic or subsequent terrestrial exposure; therefore, the impacts of short-lived insecticides may be most significant to aquatic, larval stages. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2323–2327. © 2010 SETAC