Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings under combined stress of bisphenol A and cadmium

Authors

  • Huiqing Hu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China
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  • Lihong Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China
    2. Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
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  • Qingqing Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China
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  • Liya Jiao,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China
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  • Weiqi Hua,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China
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  • Qing Zhou,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China
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  • Xiaohua Huang

    1. Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
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Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment because of its continual application in plastics and the epoxy resin industry. Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal element mainly used in smelting, electroplating, and plastic and dye manufacturing. Pollution as a result of BPA and Cd exists simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd on plants. The combined effects of BPA and Cd on the photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings were investigated using noninvasive technology. Combined treatment with 1.5 mg/L BPA and 0.2 mg/L Cd synergistically improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), initial fluorescence (F0), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and chlorophyll content. Combined treatment with 1.5 mg/L BPA and 3.0 mg/L Cd increased the F0 and decreased the Pn, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, and ETR, whereas BPA and Cd exhibited an antagonistic effect. Furthermore, combined treatment with 17.2/50.0 mg/L BPA and 3.0/10.0 mg/L Cd synergistically decreased the Pn, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, ETR, and chlorophyll content, although it increased the F0. Finally, the effects of BPA and Cd on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content ceased when BPA stress was stopped. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2455–2462. © 2014 SETAC

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