SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Ecological effects test guidelines: Terrestrial plant toxicity—vegetative vigor. EPA 712-C-96-163. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 2
    Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. Terrestrial Plants, Growth Test 208 and 227. In OECD Guidelines for Testing Chemicals. Paris, France.
  • 3
    White AL, Boutin C. 2007. Herbicidal effects on nontarget vegetation: investigating the limitations of current pesticide registration guidelines. Environ Toxicol Chem 26: 26342643.
  • 4
    Aude E, Tybirk K, Pedersen MB. 2003. Vegetation diversity of conventional and organic hedgerows in Denmark. Agric Ecosyst Environ 99: 135147.
  • 5
    Bleeker W, Schmitz U, Ristow M. 2007. Interspecific hybridisation between alien and native plant species in Germany and its consequences for native biodiversity. Biol Conserv 137: 248253.
  • 6
    Brown RA, Farmer D. 1991. Track-sprayer and glasshouse techniques for terrestrial plant bioassays with pesticides. In GorsuchJW, LowerWR, WangW, LewisMA, eds, Plants for Toxicity Assessment: Second Volume. STP 1115. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp 197208.
  • 7
    Cole JFH, Canning L, Brown RA. 1993. Rationale for the choice of species in the regulatory testing of the effects of pesticides on terrestrial non-target plants. Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Brighton, UK, November 22-25, pp 151156.
  • 8
    Kjær C. 1994. Sublethal effects of chlorsulfuron on black bindweed (Polygonum convolvulus L.). Weed Res 34: 453459.
  • 9
    Breeze VG, Marshall EJP, Hart A, Vickery JA, Crocker J, Walters K, Packer J, Kendall D, Fowbert J, Hodkinson D. 1999. Assessing pesticide risks to non-target terrestrial plants. Pesticides Safety Directorate, Commission No. PN0923. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, UK.
  • 10
    Boutin C, Lee H-B, Peart ET, Batchelor SP, Maguire RJ. 2000. Effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide metsulfuron methyl on growth and reproduction of five wetland and terrestrial plant species. Environ Toxicol Chem 19: 25322541.
  • 11
    Blackburn LG, Boutin C. 2003. Subtle effects of herbicide use in the context of genetically modified crops: a case study with glyphosate. Ecotoxicology 12: 271285.
  • 12
    Riemens MM, Dueck T, Kempenaar C. 2008. Predicting sublethal effects of herbicides on terrestrial non-crop plant species in the field from greenhouse data. Environ Pollut 155: 141149.
  • 13
    Zhou J, Tao B, Messersmith CG, Nalewaja JD. 2007. Glyphosate efficacy on velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) is affected by stress. Weed Sci 55: 240244.
  • 14
    Environment Canada. 2005. Guidance document on application and interpretation of single-species tests in environmental toxicology. Report EPS 1/RM/46. Methods Development and Application Section, Environmental Technology Centre, Ottawa, ON.
  • 15
    Norberg-King TJ. 1993. A linear interpolation method for sublethal toxicity: the inhibition concentration (ICp) approach (version 2.0). Technical Report 03-93. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, MN.
  • 16
    Aldenberg T, Slob W. 1993. Confidence limits for hazardous concentrations based on logistically distributed NOEC toxicity data. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 25: 4863.
  • 17
    van Straalen NM, van Leeuwen CJ. 2002. European history of species sensitivity distribution. In PosthumaL, SuterGW, II, TraasTP, eds, Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 1934.
  • 18
    Baskin CC, Baskin JM. 1998. Seeds—Ecology Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic, San Diego CA, USA.
  • 19
    White AL, Boutin C, Dalton RL, Henkelman B, Carpenter D. 2009. Germination requirements for 29 terrestrial and wetland wild plant species appropriate for phytotoxicity testing. Pest Manag Sci 65: 1926.
  • 20
    Systat 11. 2004. Systat for Windows, Version 11. Evanston, IL, USA.
  • 21
    StatSoft. 2005. Statistica Data Analysis Software System, Version 7.1. Tulsa, OK, USA.
  • 22
    Boutin C, Freemark KE, Keddy CJ. 1995. Overview and rationale for developing regulatory guidelines for nontarget plant testing with chemical pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 14: 14651475.
  • 23
    Kapustka LA. 1997. Selection of phytotoxicity tests for use in ecological risk assessments. In WangW, GorsuchJW, HughesJS, eds, Plants for Environmental Studies. CRC, New York, NY, USA, pp 516537.
  • 24
    Davy M, Petrie R, Smrchek J, Kuchnicki T, François D. 2001. Proposal to update non-target plant toxicity testing under NAFTA. Scientific Advisory Panel, U.S, Environmental, Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 25
    DeGennaro F, Weller SC. 1984. Differential susceptibility of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) biotypes to glyphosate. Weed Sci 32: 472476.
  • 26
    Klingaman TE, Oliver LR. 1996. Existence of ecotypes among populations of entireleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula). Weed Sci 44: 540544.
  • 27
    Noldin JA, Chandler JM, Ketchersid ML, McCauley GN. 1999. Red rice (Oryza sativa) biology. II. Ecotype sensitivity to herbicides. Weed Technol 13: 1924.
  • 28
    Warwick SI. 1991. The influence of intraspecific variation on the biology and control of agricultural weeds. Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Brighton, UK, November 15–18, pp 9971006.
  • 29
    Price SC, Hill JE, Allard RW. 1983. Genetic variability for herbicide reaction in plant populations. Weed Sci 31: 652657.
  • 30
    Gasquez J, Darmency H. 1991. Variability in herbicide response within weed species. Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Brighton, UK, November 15–18, pp 10231032.
  • 31
    Baril A, Whiteside M, Boutin C. 2005. Analysis of a database of pesticide residues on plants for wildlife risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 24: 360371.
  • 32
    Whitworth JW, Muzik TJ. 1967. Differential response of selected clones of bindweed to 2,4-D. Weeds 15: 275280.
  • 33
    Wilkinson RE. 1980. Ecotypic variation of Tamarix pentandra epicuticular wax and possible relationship with herbicide sensitivity. Weed Sci 28: 110113.
  • 34
    Anderson DM, Swanton CJ, Hall JC, Mersey BG. 1993. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the efficacy of glufosinate ammonium. Weed Res 33: 139148.
  • 35
    Petersen J, Hurle K. 2001. Influence of climatic conditions and plant physiology on glufosinate ammonium efficacy. Weed Res 41: 3139.
  • 36
    Kleijn D, Snoeijing GIJ. 1997. Field boundary vegetation and the effects of agrochemical drift: botanical change caused by low levels of herbicide and fertilizer. J Appl Ecol 34: 14131425.
  • 37
    Clark J, Ortego LS, Fairbrother A. 2004. Sources of variability in plant toxicity testing. Chemosphere 57: 15991612.