Influence of water hardness on fluoride toxicity to rainbow trout

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Abstract

Static bioassays were conducted to determine effects of water hardness on toxicity of sodium fluoride to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six hour LC50 values increased from 51 to 193 mg/L [F] as water hardness levels rose from 17 to 385 mg/L CaCO3. Tests of chronic toxicity at different water hardness levels are needed before fluoride standards for aquatic life, such as fish, can be set.

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