• Sediment quality criteria;
  • Metal bioavailability;
  • Iron sulfide


The toxicity of chemicals in sediments is influenced by the extent that chemicals bind to the sediment. It is shown that acid volatile sulfide (AVS) is the sediment phase that determines the LC50 for cadmium in the marine sediments tested. Although it is well known that metals can form insoluble sulfides, it apparently has not been recognized that AVS is a reactive pool of solid phase sulfide that is available to bind with metals. Amphipod sediment toxicity tests were conducted in the laboratory and the observed amphipod LC50s on a normalized cadmium concentration basis, [Cd]/[AVS], is the same for sediments with over an order of magnitude difference in dry weight normalized cadmium LC50s.

Because other toxic metals also form insoluble sulfides, it is likely that AVS is important in determining their toxicity in sediments as well. Most freshwater and marine sediments contain sufficient acid volatile sulfide for this phase to be the predominant determinant of toxicity. The other sorption phases are expected to be important only for low AVS sediments, for example, fully oxidized sediments. From the point of view of sediment quality criteria the other sorption phases would be important for metals with large partition coefficients and large chronic water quality criteria.