Toxicokinetics in aquatic systems: Model comparisons and use in hazard assessment

Authors

  • Peter F. Landrum,

    Corresponding author
    1. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2205 Commonwealth Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
    • Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2205 Commonwealth Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
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  • Michael J. Lydy,

    1. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2205 Commonwealth Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
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  • Henry Lee II

    1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pacific Ecosystem Branch, Environmental Research Laboratory-Narragansett, 2111 S.E. Marine Science Drive, Newport, Oregon 97365-5260
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Abstract

Toxicokinetic models are not constrained by assumptions of equilibrium as are thermodynamic (equilibrium-partitioning) models and are more accurate predictors of toxicant accumulation for non-steady-state exposures and multiple uptake routes. Toxicokinetic models – compartment-based models, physiological-based models, and energetics-based models – are reviewed and the different mathematical formalisms compared. Additionally, the residue-based toxicity approach is reviewed. Coupling toxicokinetic models with tissue concentrations at which toxicity occurs offers a direct link between exposure and hazard. Basing hazard on tissue rather than environmental concentrations avoids the errors associated with accommodating multiple sources, pulsed exposures, and non-steady-state accumulation.

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