• 1
    Flemming, C.A. and J.T. Trevors. 1989. Copper toxicity and chemistry in the environment A review Water Air Soil Pollut 44 143158.
  • 2
    Komarovsky, F. and L. Polishchuk. 1981. Mercury and other heavy metals in the water Migration, accumulation and toxicity to aquatic organisms (a review) J Hydrobiol 17 5162.
  • 3
    Johnson, H.E. 1988. Clark Fork basin project status report and action plan Office of the Governor, Helena, MT.
  • 4
    Woodward, D.F., W.G. Brumbaugh, A.J. DeLonay, E.E. Little and C. Smith. 1993. Effects on rainbow trout of a metals-contaminated diet of benthic invertebrates from the Clark Fork River, Montana Trans Am Fish Soc 123 5162.
  • 5
    Goede, R.W. 1989. Fish health/condition assessment procedures Part 1 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Fisheries Experiment Station, Logan, UT.
  • 6
    Dillard, C.J. and A.L. Tappel. 1984. Fluorescent damage products of lipid peroxidation Methods Enzymol 105 337341.
  • 7
    Fletcher, B.L., C.J. Dillard and A.L. Tappel. 1973. Measurement of fluorescent lipid peroxidation products in biological systems and tissues Anal Biochem 52 19.
  • 8
    Gulley, D.D., A.M. Boelter and H.L. Bergman. 1991. TOXSTAT Version 3 3 University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.
  • 9
    SAS Institute. 1985. SAS® User's Guide Basics, Version 5 Edition Cary, NC.
  • 10
    Gilbert, R.O. 1987. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, pp 186202.
  • 11
    Porter, P.S., R.C. Ward and H.F. Bell. 1988. The detection limit Environ Sci Technol 22 956961.
  • 12
    Goodman, L.A. 1964. Simultaneous confidence intervals for contrast among multinominal populations Anal Math Stat 35 716725.
  • 13
    Miller, R.G., Jr. 1981. Simultaneous Statistical Inferences, 2nd ed Springer Verlag, New York, NY.
  • 14
    Piper, R.G., I.B. McElwain, L.E. Orme, J.P. McCraren, L.G. Fowler and J.R. Leonard. 1982. Fish Hatchery Management U S Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.
  • 15
    Farag, A.M. and H.L. Bergman. 1993. Fish physiology In Effects of Metal-Contaminated Sediment, Water and Diet on Aquatic Organisms Final Report National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, Columbia, MO, pp 41417.
  • 16
    Tohtz, J. 1992. Survey and inventory of cold water streams, Oct 21, 1991. through June 30, 1992. Progress Report for Project f 46 R 5 Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT.
  • 17
    Sorensen, E.M. 1991. Metal Poisoning in Fish CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
  • 18
    Varanasi, U. and D. Markey. 1978. Uptake and release of lead and cadmium in skin and mucus of coho salmon (Oncorynchus kisutch) Comp Biochem Physiol C60 187191.
  • 19
    Sauer, G.R. and N. Watabe. 1989. Temporal and metal-specific patterns in the accumulation of heavy metals by the scales of Fundulus heteroclitus Aquat Toxicol 14 233248.
  • 20
    Sauer, G.R. and N. Watabe. 1984. Zinc uptake and its effect on calcification in the scales of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus Aquat Toxicol 5 5166.
  • 21
    Black, E.C. and S.J. Tredwell. 1967. Effect of a partial loss of scales and mucous on carbohydrate metabolism in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) J Fish Res Board Can 24 939953.
  • 22
    Gaines, J.L. and A.R. Wilmer. 1975. Some skin lesions of fishes In W.E.Ribelin and G.Migaki, eds, Pathology of Fishes University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, pp 429441.
  • 23
    Reid, S.D. and D.G. McDonald. 1988. Effects of cadmium, copper, and low pH on ion fluxes in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45 244253.
  • 24
    Shearer, K.D. 1984. Changes in elemental composition of hatchery reared rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, associated with growth and reproduction Can J Fish Aquat Sci 41 15921600.
  • 25
    Farag, A.F., D.F. Woodward, E.E. Little, B. Steadman and F.A. Vertucci. 1993. The effects of low pH and elevated aluminum on Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus Clarki Bouvieri) Environ Toxicol Chem 12 719731.
  • 26
    Lauren, D.J. and D.G. McDonald. 1985. Effects of copper on branchial ionoregulation in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson J Comp Physiol B155 635644.
  • 27
    Halliwell, B. and J.M.C.Gutteridge, eds 1985. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 139170.
  • 28
    Wills, E.D. 1985. The role of dietary components in oxidative stress in tissue In H.Sies, ed, Oxidative Stress in Tissues Academic, New York, NY.
  • 29
    Stern, A. 1985. Red cell oxidative damage In H.Sies, ed, Oxidative Stress in Tissues Academic, New York, NY.
  • 30
    Sokol, R.J., M. Devereaux, G.W. Mierau, K.M. Hambidge and R.H. Shikes. 1990. Oxidant injury to hepatic mitochondrial lipids in rats with dietary copper overload Gastroenterology 99 10611071.
  • 31
    Crespo, S., G. Nonnotte, D.A. Colin, C. Leray, L. Nonnotte and A. Aubree. 1986. Morphological and functional alterations induced in trout intestine by dietary cadmium and lead J Fish Biol 28 6980.
  • 32
    Dallinger, R. and H. Kautzky. 1985. The importance of contaminated food for the uptake of heavy metals by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) A field study Oecologia 67 8289.
  • 33
    Ingersoll, C.G., W.G. Brumbaugh, F.J. Dwyer and N.E. Kemble. 1994. Bioaccumulation of metals by Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana Environ Toxicol Chem 13 20132020.
  • 34
    Woodward, D.F., A.F. Farag, H.L. Bergman, A.J. DeLonay and E.E. Little. 1994. Metals contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana Determining effects on early life stage rainbow trout and brown trout Can J Fish Aquat Sci (in press).