Acute toxicity and behavioral effects of chlorpyrifos, permethrin, phenol, strychnine, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to 30-day-old Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

Authors

  • Patricia J. Rice,

    1. Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
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  • Charles D. Drewes,

    1. Department of Zoology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
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  • Theresa M. Klubertanz,

    1. Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
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  • Steven P. Bradbury,

    1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, Minnesota 55804–1636
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  • Joel R. Coats

    Corresponding author
    1. Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    • Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
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  • Journal paper J-16439 of the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station Project 3187.

Abstract

Five chemicals with different modes of action were evaluated in laboratory studies to determine their acute toxicity (48-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) and behavioral effects on 30-d-old Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The order of toxicity for these xenobiotics was permethrin > chlorpyrifos > 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) > strychnine > phenol. The 48-h LC50s were significantly different and ranged from 0.011 to 24.1 mg/L. In addition, chlorpyrifos and permethrin accumulated in the tissues of juvenile O. latipes. Observations of five behavioral/morphological responses, including changes in equilibrium, general activity, startle response, and morphology (e.g., hemorrhage and deformities) were used as indicators of sublethal toxicity. Each chemical, with the exception of 2,4-DNP, elicited a distinct behavior or set of behavioral responses. The behavioral toxicology bioassay may be valuable in comparing and predicting the mode of action of new or unknown toxicants in this species of fish.

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