Presented in the Symposium on Wildlife Ecotoxicology, 1995 SETAC-Europe Meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 25–28.
Extrapolation factors for small samples of pesticide toxicity data: Special focus on LD50 values for birds and mammals†
Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009
Copyright © 1997 SETAC
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume 16, Issue 9, pages 1785–1788, September 1997
How to Cite
Luttik, R. and Aldenberg, T. (1997), Extrapolation factors for small samples of pesticide toxicity data: Special focus on LD50 values for birds and mammals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16: 1785–1788. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620160904
- Issue published online: 26 OCT 2009
- Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 OCT 1996
- Manuscript Received: 22 APR 1996
- Hazard/risk assessment;
- Safety factors;
- Birds and mammals
For the registration procedure of pesticides it is necessary to have specific information and testing data in order to conduct an ecological hazard/risk assessment. The hazard/risk assessment for acute exposure is usually based on a quotient method, where the estimated environmental concentration is compared with the lowest available 50% lethal dose (LD50) value. Generally there are only one or two LD50s available for birds and mammals, and an underestimation of the potential hazard/risk could be a real possibility. In this article, we propose to estimate a hazardous dose for 5% of the species (HD5) for LD50 data, corresponding with the hazardous concentration for 5% of the species for the no-observed effects concentration (NOEC) data. In addition we describe a method for calculating safety factors that can be used in the case of small sample sizes, especially those smaller than 4 and including n = 1. The safety factors to be applied to the geometric mean of the LD50s for a median estimate of the HD5 of birds and mammals are 5.7 and 3.8, respectively. The safety factors for the 95% confidence limit of the HD5 of birds for n = 1, 2, and 3 are 33, 20, and 16, respectively. For mammals these safety factors are 15, 10, and 8.