• 1
    Swartz RC., 1989. Marine sediment toxicity tests. In Contaminated Marine Sediments-Assessment and Remediation. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp 115129.
  • 2
    Lamberson JO, DeWitt TH, Swartz RC., 1992. Assessment of sediment toxicity to marine benthos. In BurtonGAJr, ed, Sediment Toxicity Assessment. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 183240.
  • 3
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal. EPA-503/8–91–001. Washington, DC.
  • 4
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F. Washington, DC.
  • 5
    Ingersoll CG, et al., 1997. Workgroup summary report on uncertainty evaluation of measurement endpoints used in sediment ecological risk assessments. In IngersollCG, DillonT, BiddingerGR, eds, Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. Special Publication. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, USA, pp 271296.
  • 6
    Voorhees DJ, Kane Driscoll SB, Bridges TS., 1998. Improving dredged material management decisions with uncertainty analysis. DOER-3. Technical Report. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS.
  • 7
    Spies RB., 1989. Sediment bioassays, chemical contaminants and benthic ecology: New insights or just muddy water? Mar Environ Res 27: 7375.
  • 8
    DeWitt TH, Hickey CW, Morrisey DJ, Nipper MG, Roper DS, Williamson RB, Dam LV, Williams EK., 1999. Do amphipods have the same concentration-response to contaminated sediment in situ as in vitro? Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 10261037.
  • 9
    American Society for Testing Materials. 1993. Standard guide for conducting solid phase, 10-day, static sediment toxicity tests with marine and estuarine infaunal amphipods. E 1367–92. Philadelphia, PA.
  • 10
    Swartz RC, Cole FA, Schults DW, DeBen WA., 1986. Ecological changes on the Palos Verdes Shelf near a large sewage outfall: 1980–1983. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 31: 113.
  • 11
    Long ER., 2000. Degraded sediment quality in U.S. estuaries: A review of magnitude and ecological implications. Ecol Appl 10: 338349.
  • 12
    Sindermann CJ., 1997. The search for cause and effect relationships in marine pollution studies. Mar Pollut Bull 34: 218221.
  • 13
    Chapman, PM., 1995. Do sediment toxicity tests require field validation? Environ Toxicol Chem 14: 14511453.
  • 14
    Thursby G, Heltshe BJ, Scott KJ., 1997. Revised approach to toxicity test acceptability criteria using a statistical performance assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 16: 13221329.
  • 15
    Long ER, Chapman, PM., 1985. A sediment quality triad: Measures of sediment contamination, toxicity and infaunal community composition in Puget Sound. Mar Pollut Bull 16: 405415.
  • 16
    Chapman PM, Dexter RN, Long ER., 1987. Synoptic measures of sediment contamination, toxicity and infaunal community composition (the Sediment Quality Triad) in San Francisco Bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 37: 7596.
  • 17
    Long ER, et al., 1990. A comparative evaluation of five toxicity tests with sediments from San Francisco Bay and Tomales Bay, California. Environ Toxicol Chem 9: 11931214.
  • 18
    Swartz RC, DeBen WA, Sercu KA, Lamberson JO., 1982. Sediment toxicity and the distribution of amphipods in Commencement Bay, Washington, USA. Mar Pollut Bull 13: 359364.
  • 19
    Swartz RC, Cole FA, Lambertson JO, Ferraro SP, Schults DW, DeBen WA, Lee H II, Ozretich RJ., 1994. Sediment toxicity, contamination and amphipod abundance at a DDT- and dieldrin-contaminated site in San Francisco Bay. Environ Toxicol Chem 13: 949962.
  • 20
    McGee BL, Fisher DJ, Turley S., 1999. Assessment of sediment contamination, acute toxicity, and population viability of the es-tuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus in Baltimore Harbor, Maryland, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 21512168.
  • 21
    Long ER, Wolfe DA, Scott KJ, Thursby GB, Stern EA, Peven C, Schwartz T., 1995. Magnitude and extent of sediment toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan estuary. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 88. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Silver Spring, MD.
  • 22
    Long ER, et al., 1999. Magnitude and extent of chemical contamination and toxicity in sediments of Biscayne Bay and vicinity. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 141. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Silver Spring, MD, USA.
  • 23
    Adams DA, O'Connor JS, Weisberg SB., 1998. Sediment quality of the NY/NJ Harbor system. EPA/902-R-98–001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, New York, NY.
  • 24
    Summers JK, Macauley JM., 1993. Statistical summary: EMAP-Estuaries Louisianian Province-1991. EPA/600/R-93–001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 25
    Anderson BS, et al., 2001. Sediment quality in Los Angeles Harbor: A triad assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem (in press).
  • 26
    Fairey RC, et al., 1998. Assessment of sediment toxicity and chemical concentrations in the San Diego Bay region, California, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 17: 15701581.
  • 27
    Ferraro S, Cole F., 1997. Field verification of sediment-amphipod toxicity tests and calibration of PAH effects on the macrobenthos. Abstracts, 18th Annual Meeting, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, San Francisco, CA, USA, 16–20 November, p 21.
  • 28
    Swartz RC, DeBen WA, Jones JKP, Lamberson JO, Cole FA., 1985. Phoxocephalid amphipod bioassay for marine sediment tox-icity. In CardwellRD, PurdyR, BahnerRC, eds, Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Seventh Symposium. STP 854. American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp 284307.
  • 29
    Scott KJ., 1998. Relationship between Ampelisca sediment tox-icity test response and parameters of benthic community conditions. Abstracts, 19th Annual Meeting, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Charlotte, NC, USA, 15–19, November, p 88.
  • 30
    Pearson TH, Rosenberg R., 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 16: 229311.
  • 31
    Hyland JL, Van Dolah RF, Snoots TR., 1999. Predicting stress in benthic communities of southeastern U.S. estuaries in relation to chemical contamination of sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 25572564.