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Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA†
Article first published online: 3 NOV 2009
Copyright © 2001 SETAC
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume 20, Issue 7, pages 1591–1595, July 2001
How to Cite
Sparling, D. W., Fellers, G. M. and McConnell, L. L. (2001), Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20: 1591–1595. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620200725
- Issue published online: 3 NOV 2009
- Article first published online: 3 NOV 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 DEC 2000
- Manuscript Received: 28 AUG 2000
- Declining amphibians;
- Hyla regilla
Several species of anuran amphibians have undergone drastic population declines in the western United States over the last 10 to 15 years. In California, the most severe declines are in the Sierra Mountains east of the Central Valley and downwind of the intensely agricultural San Joaquin Valley. In contrast, coastal and more northern populations across from the less agrarian Sacramento Valley are stable or declining less precipitously. In this article, we provide evidence that pesticides are instrumental in declines of these species. Using Hyla regilla as a sentinel species, we found that cholinesterase (ChE) activity in tadpoles was depressed in mountainous areas east of the Central Valley compared with sites along the coast or north of the Valley. Cholinesterase was also lower in areas where ranid population status was poor or moderate compared with areas with good ranid status. Up to 50% of the sampled population in areas with reduced ChE had detectable organophosphorus residues, with concentrations as high as 190 ppb wet weight. In addition, up to 86% of some populations had measurable endosulfan concentrations and 40% had detectable 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, 4,4′-DDT, and 2,4′-DDT residues.