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Biomimetic solid-phase microextraction to predict body residues and toxicity of chemicals that act by narcosis

Authors

  • Heather A. Leslie,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94084, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    • Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Annelies J. P. Oosthoek,

    1. Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94084, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Frans J. M. Busser,

    1. Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Michiel H. S. Kraak,

    1. Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94084, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Joop L. M. Hermens

    1. Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Abstract

A biomimetic extraction technique using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers has been developed for the risk assessment of contaminants with a narcotic mode of action. Our goal is to apply this technique in the future for the prediction of total baseline toxicity of environmental water and effluent samples. Validation of this method requires establishing the relationship between contaminant accumulation and toxicity in biota and accumulation in the surrogate solid phase (the SPME fiber coating). For this purpose, we determined the median lethal concentration (LC50) values for Chironomus riparius midge larvae exposed to two halogenated aromatic compounds separately and measured body residues in the exposed larvae. Solid-phase microextraction fibers with an 85-μm polyacrylate (PA) coating served as the surrogate hydrophobic phase, mimicking the uptake of the compounds by midge larvae. The toxicant concentrations in SPME fibers measured directly by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) or calculated from the SPME fiber—water partition coefficient, KSPME, were related to the toxicant concentrations found in midge larvae. Our results demonstrated that the biomimetic SPME method enables the estimation of body residues in biota and prediction of the degree of baseline toxicity of a water medium.

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