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Physiological responses to acute silver exposure in the freshwater crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes)—a model invertebrate?

Authors

  • Martin Grosell,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Zoophysiology, Universitetsparken 13, August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100 Ø, Denmark
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Zoophysiology, August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100 Ø, Denmark
    • Department of Zoophysiology, Universitetsparken 13, August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100 Ø, Denmark
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  • Colin J. Brauner,

    1. Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182–4614, USA
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  • Scott P. Kelly,

    1. McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
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  • James C. McGeer,

    1. Environmental Laboratories, MMSK-CANMET, Natural Resources Canada, 555 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0G1, Canada
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  • Adalto Bianchini,

    1. Departamento de Ciěncias Fisiológicas, Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rua Eng. Alfredo Huch, 475 Rio Grande, RS 96201–900, Brazil
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  • Chris M. Wood

    1. McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
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Abstract

Adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes) exposed to 8.41 ± 0.17 μg silver/L (19.4% as Ag+) in moderately hard freshwater under flow-through conditions for 96 h exhibited ionoregulatory disturbance, elevated metabolic ammonia (Tamm) production and substantial silver accumulation in the gills, hemolymph, and hepatopancreas. The ionoregulatory disturbance included both a generally reduced unidirectional Na+ influx and an increased unidirectional Na+ efflux, leading to a substantial net loss of Na+ from the silver-exposed crayfish. The Na+ uptake in silver-exposed crayfish differed overall from controls, while the increased Na+ efflux recovered to control values 48 h into the 96 h of exposure. The general inhibition of Na+ uptake could be explained by a reduced sodium/potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) activity in terminally obtained gill samples from the silverexposed crayfish. The silver-induced effect on Na+ uptake and loss translated to reduced hemolymph Na+ concentrations but not significantly reduced hemolymph Cl concentrations. Hemolymph Tamm and Tamm efflux both increased in silver-exposed crayfish, indicating an increased metabolic Tamm production. The present study demonstrates that the toxic mechanism of waterborne silver exposure in freshwater crayfish resembles that of freshwater teleost fish. The crayfish might therefore be a useful model system for extending current environmental regulatory strategies, currently based on teleost fish, to invertebrates.

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