Aquatic toxicity of triclosan



The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 μg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 μg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 μg/L and 71.3 μg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Onco-rhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 μg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 μg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 μg/L and 2,532 at 30 μg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.