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Hoang TC, Pryor RL, Rand GM, Frakes RA. 2011. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 30: 997–1005.

Table 2 on page 1001 should be replaced with the following table:

Table 2. Acute toxicity of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to Florida native butterflies as a result of exposure on the thoraxa
CompoundsLife stageSpeciesExposure on thorax
24-h LD50 (µg/g)24-h LD50 (µg/m2)24-h LD50 (µg/organism)
  • a

    Data in parentheses are 95% confidence interval.

  • b

    Not measured.

  • c

    Not studied.

  • LD50 = median lethal dose.

Permethrin5th-instar caterpillarsAtala hairstreak0.08 (0.07–0.09)b0.03 (0.02–0.04)
  Zebra longwing0.11 (0.05–0.18)0.03 (0.02–0.05)
  Common buckeye0.23 (0.18–0.29)0.09 (0.07–0.12)
  Painted lady0.46 (0.29–0.74)0.26 (0.16–0.41)
  White peacock0.79 (0.62–1.00)0.34 (0.27–0.43)
 Adult butterfliesAtala hairstreak1.60 (1.05–2.42)307 (202–467)0.20 (0.13–0.30)
  Zebra longwing0.18 (0.14–0.24)21 (16–27)0.03 (0.02–0.04)
  Common buckeye1.07 (0.80–1.42)145 (109–193)0.12 (0.09–0.17)
  Painted lady1.10 (0.97–1.26)247 (216–281)0.24 (0.21–0.27)
  White peacock0.74 (0.54–1.03)64 (46–88)0.06 (0.05–0.09)
Naled5th-instar caterpillarsAtala hairstreakccc
  Zebra longwing0.45 (0.07–1.32)0.14 (0.02–0.40)
  Common buckeye4.04 (3.31–4.94)1.84 (1.51–2.25)
  Painted lady10.82 (8.20–14.27)5.98 (4.53–7.89)
  White peacock0.19 (0.14–0.26)0.49 (0.41–0.58)
 Adult butterfliesAtala hairstreak28.22 (21.70–36.69)4285 (3295–5572)2.74 (2.11–3.56)
  Zebra longwing0.90 (0.40–1.37)84 (38–127)0.11 (0.05–0.17)
  Common buckeye6.84 (5.45–8.57)929 (741–1164)0.79 (0.63–1.00)
  Painted lady30.08 (27.88–32.45)6579 (6099–7098)6.32 (5.86–6.81)
  White peacock14.68 (9.01–23.99)1522 (933–2483)1.50 (0.92–2.45)
Dichlorvos5th-instar caterpillarsAtala hairstreak1.63 (1.30–2.05)0.58 (0.46–0.72)
  Zebra longwing1.57 (1.23–2.00)0.47 (0.37–0.60)
  Common buckeye7.36 (6.10–8.90)2.99 (2.48–3.61)
  Painted lady3.79 (2.62–5.46)2.09 (1.45–3.02)
  White peacock1.13 (0.94–1.35)0.49 (0.41–0.58)
 Adult butterfliesAtala hairstreak6.56 (5.74–7.50)1336 (1169–1526)0.85 (0.75–0.96)
  Zebra longwing1.56 (0.30–2.49)145 (28–232)0.19 (0.04–0.31)
  Common buckeye11.30 (6.02–21.20)1125 (599–2111)0.96 (0.51–1.80)
  Painted lady4.66 (4.00–5.43)1044 (896–1217)1.00 (0.86–1.17)
  White peacock1.48 (1.19–1.86)153 (123–192)0.15 (0.12–0.19)