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Keywords:

  • Toxicity;
  • Dynamic energy budget;
  • Dose–response;
  • Adverse outcome pathway;
  • Mechanistic effect model

Abstract

We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages between endpoints. We discuss how the distinction between quantal and graded endpoints and the type of linkage between endpoints can guide model design and selection. Strengths and limitations of two main approaches and possible ways forward are outlined. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2519–2524. © 2011 SETAC