• Nanoparticles;
  • Fullerene;
  • Colloids;
  • Toxicity;
  • Daphnia magna


The present study assessed the toxic effects of stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of gallic-acid-stabilized C70 fullerene on Daphnia magna. The suspensions were stabilized through noncovalent surface modification with gallic acid. In addition to whole-organism responses, changes in antioxidative processes in D. magna were quantified. Acute toxicity was observed with 96LC50 for C70-gallic acid of 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/L C70. Daphnia magna fecundity was significantly reduced in 21-d bioassays at C70-gallic aqcid concentrations below quantifiable limits. Antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as well as lipid peroxidation suggested that exposed organisms experienced oxidative stress. Microscopic techniques used to determine cellular toxicity via apoptosis proved unsuccessful. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:215–220. © 2011 SETAC