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Toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom in the eutrophic dam reservoir (Southeast Poland)

Authors

  • Anna Sierosławska,

    Corresponding author
    1. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Norwida 4, 20-061 Lublin, Poland
    • The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Norwida 4, 20-061 Lublin, Poland.
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  • Anna Rymuszka,

    1. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Norwida 4, 20-061 Lublin, Poland
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  • Renata Kalinowska,

    1. Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecała 18, 20-080 Lublin, Poland
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  • Tadeusz Skowroński,

    1. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Norwida 4, 20-061 Lublin, Poland
    2. Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecała 18, 20-080 Lublin, Poland
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  • Adam Bownik,

    1. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Norwida 4, 20-061 Lublin, Poland
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  • Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska

    1. Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecała 18, 20-080 Lublin, Poland
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  • Presented at the First International Workshop on Aquatic Toxicology and Biomonitoring, Vodnany, Czech Republic, August 27–29, 2008.

Abstract

Cyanobacterial bloom was observed in a highly eutrophic dam reservoir, Zemborzycki, near Lublin (SE Poland) over a warm period in the year 2007. The water bloom consisted of several cyanobacterial taxa: Anabaena circinalis, Anabaena spiroides, Anabaena flos-aquae, Planktothrix agardhii, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon gracile, and Microcystis flos-aquae. Anabaena spp., and Aphanizomenon spp., potential producers of neurotoxic anatoxin-a, quantitatively predominated in the studied bloom. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of surface scum sampled during Anabaena circinalis domination revealed the presence of anatoxin-a at a high concentration (1,035.59 µg per liter of surface scum). At the same time, neither gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) nor microcystin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test showed the presence of other frequently found cyanotoxins, microcystins. Toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom was assessed by the crustacean acute toxicity test Daphtoxkit F™ pulex using Daphnia pulex, and by the chronic toxicity test Protoxkit F™ with a ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The crude extract of cyanobacterial scum showed high toxicity for Daphnia pulex, with 24-h median effective concentration (EC50) value of 90.3 µg/L of anatoxin-a, which corresponded to the cyanobacterial density in the scum of 1.01 g dry weight/L. For Tetrahymena thermophila, 24-h EC50 was lower, evaluated to be 60.48 µg/L of anatoxin-a, which corresponded to a cyanobacterial density of 0.68 g dry weight/L of the scum. On the basis of evaluated toxicity units, the cyanobacterial extract was classified at class IV toxicity, which means high toxic hazard. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:556–560. © 2009 SETAC

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