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Genetic costs of tolerance to metals in Daphnia longispina populations historically exposed to a copper mine drainage

Authors

  • Ana Raquel Agra,

    1. CESAM—Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e Mar and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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  • Lúcia Guilhermino,

    1. ICBAS—Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populações, Universidade do Porto, Lg. Prof. Abel Salazar, 2, 4099-003 Porto, Portugal
    2. CIIMAR/CIMAR-LA—Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 177, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
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  • Amadeu M.V.M. Soares,

    1. CESAM—Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e Mar and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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  • Carlos Barata

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    • Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
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Abstract

The present study was conducted to assess three microevolutionary aspects of adaptation to pollution in Daphnia longispina populations historically exposed to an acid mine drainage from an abandoned pyrite mine: pollution mediated effects in acute tolerance to copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn); pollution-mediated effects on genetic variability of tolerant and physiological traits related to fitness (feeding rates); and fitness costs of tolerance measured as genetic trade-offs between tolerance and feeding rates under none and low levels of contamination. These objectives were addressed by comparing broad sense heritabilities and genetic correlations using up to 20 distinct clonal lineages randomly obtained from two populations: one located in a water reservoir contaminated by the acid mine drainage, and the other located in a nearby clean water reservoir. Results showed that only sensitive and resistant lineages to Cu were present in the reference and contaminated site, respectively. For Zn, however, both populations had a similar distribution pattern of sensitivities. Heritability values for tolerant and feeding traits across metal exposure levels was similar in both populations being in most cases greater than 50%. Fitness costs of tolerance were illustrated by lower feeding rates of the tolerant population compared to the reference one and negative genetic correlations between mean clonal feeding rates and median clonal survival time in control conditions (no added Cu or Zn). The results obtained thus support the view that tolerance to pollution is ecologically costly. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:939–946. © 2009 SETAC

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