Investigators have used many techniques to understand diet and tooth use in prehistoric species. A promising new addition to the analytical arsenal is dental microwear analysis—the study of microscopic wear patterns on teeth. On-going work is proceeding on a number of fronts. Studies of modern animals are showing some of the limits of resolution of the technique, while studies of prehistoric animals are answering many new questions and raising still more in the process. Much work remains to be done, but one thing is clear: if we proceed cautiously, we can provide new insights into the evolution of diet and tooth use.