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Keywords:

  • Birth;
  • obstetrics;
  • australopithecines;
  • Homo;
  • bipedalism

Abstract

…adaptation to bipedal locomotion decreased the size of the bony birth-canal at the same time that the exigencies of tool use selected for larger brains. This obstetrical dilemma was solved by delivery of the fetus at a much earlier stage of development. (Washburn1)

…there can be no doubt that many of the obstetrical problems of Mrs. H. Sapiens are due to the combination of a narrower pelvis and a bigger head in the species. (Krogman2)