• 1
    Zahavi A. 1975. Mate selection: selection for a handicap. J Theor Biol 53: 20514.
  • 2
    Zahavi A. 1977. The cost of honesty (further remarks on the handicap principle). J Theor Biol 67: 6035.
  • 3
    Zahavi A. 1995. Altruism as a handicap—the limitations of kin selection and reciprocity. Avian Biol 26: 13.
  • 4
    Grafen A. 1990. Biological signals as handicaps. J Theor Biol 144: 51746.
  • 5
    Johnstone RA. 1995. Sexual selection, honest advertisement and the handicap principle: reviewing the evidence. Biol Rev 70: 165.
  • 6
    Johnstone RA. 1997. The evolution of animal signals. In: KrebsJR, DaviesNB, editors. Behavioral ecology: an evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell Science. p 155178.
  • 7
    Getty T. 1998. Handicap signaling: when fecundity and viability do not add up. Anim Behav 56: 127130.
  • 8
    Boone JL. 1998. The evolution of magnanimity: when is it better to give than to receive? Hum Nat 9: 121.
  • 9
    Neiman FD. 1998. Conspicuous consumption as wasteful advertising: a Darwinian perspective on spatial patterns in the Classic Maya terminal monument dates. In: BartonCM, ClarkGA, editors. Rediscovering Darwin: evolutionary theory and archaeological explanation. Washington D. C.: Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, No. 7. p 267290.
  • 10
    Miller GF. 1999. Sexual selection for cultural displays. In: DunbarR, editors. The evolution of culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p 7191.
  • 11
    Miller GF. 2000. The mating mind: how sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. New York: Doubleday.
  • 12
    Smith EA, Bliege Bird R. 2000. Turtle hunting and tombstone opening: public generosity as costly signaling. Evol Hum Behav 21: 245261.
  • 13
    Sosis R. 2000. Costly signaling and torch fishing on Ifaluk Atoll. Evol Hum Behav 21: 223244.
  • 14
    Bliege Bird R. 1999. Cooperation and conflict: the behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evol Anthropol 8: 6575.
  • 15
    Bliege Bird R, Smith EA, Bird D. 2001. The hunting handicap: costly signaling in human foraging strategies. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, in press.
  • 16
    Bliege Bird R, Bird D. 2001. Gendered fishing among the Meriam: implications for sexual division of foraging labor, submitted.
  • 17
    Zahavi A. 1990. Arabian babblers: the quest for social status in a cooperative breeder. In: StaceyPB, KoenigWD, editors. Cooperative breeding in birds: long-term studies of ecology and behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 103130.
  • 18
    Zahavi A, Zahavi A. 1997. The handicap principle: a missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 19
    Veblen T. 1992. The Theory of the Leisure Class. MillsCW, editor. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
  • 20
    Kelly RL. 1995. The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • 21
    Hawkes K. 1990. Why do men hunt? some benefits for risky strategies. In: CashdanE, editor. Risk and uncertainty in tribal and peasant economies. Boulder: Westview Press. p 145166.
  • 22
    Hawkes K. 1991. Showing off: tests of an hypothesis about men's foraging goals. Ethol Sociobiol 12: 2954.
  • 23
    Hawkes K. 1993. Why hunter-gatherers work: an ancient version of the problem of public goods. Curr Anthropol 34: 341361.
  • 24
    Hawkes K. 2000. Big game hunting and the evolution of egalitarian societies. In: DeihlM, editor. Hierarchies in action: cui bono? Center for Archaeological Investigations, Occasional Paper No. 27: 5983. Southern Illinois University.
  • 25
    Hawkes K. 2001. Is meat the hunter's property? Big-game, ownership and explanations of hunting and sharing. In: StanfordC, BunnH, editors. Meat-eating and human evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 219236.
  • 26
    Sahlins M. 1972. Stone Age economics. Chicago: Aldine.
  • 27
    Kaplan H, Hill K. 1985. Food sharing among Ache foragers: tests of explanatory hypotheses. Curr Anthropol 26: 223246.
  • 28
    Olson M. 1965. The logic of collective action: public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • 29
    Samuelson PA. 1954. The pure theory of public expenditure. Rev Econ Statistics 36: 387389.
  • 30
    Hawkes K. 1992. Sharing and collective action. In: SmithEA, WinterhalderB, editors. Evolutionary ecology and human behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 269300.
  • 31
    Ostrom V, Ostrom F. 1977. Public goods and public choices. In: SavasES, editor. Alternatives for delivering public services: toward improved performance. Boulder: Westview. p 749.
  • 32
    Blurton Jones NG. 1984. A selfish origin for food sharing: tolerated theft. Ethol Sociobiol 5: 13.
  • 33
    Blurton Jones NG. 1987. Tolerated theft: suggestions about the ecology and evolution of sharing, hoarding and scrounging. Soc Sci Information 26: 3154.
  • 34
    Hawkes K, Bliege Bird R, Bird D. 1998. Comment on Wilson DS: hunting, sharing, and multilevel selection: the tolerated theft model revisited. Curr Anthropol 39: 8990.
  • 35
    Smith EA. 1993. Comment on Hawkes K: why hunter-gatherers work: an ancient version of the problem of public goods. Curr Anthropol 34: 356.
  • 36
    Wilson DS. 1998. Hunting, sharing, and multilevel selection: the tolerated theft model revisited. Curr Anthropol 39: 7397.
  • 37
    Smith EA, Bliege Bird R, (n.d.) Costly signaling and prosocial behavior. In: BowlesS, BoydR, FehrE, GintisH, editors. Strong reciprocity: roots of cooperation and exchange.
  • 38
    Carlisle TR, Zahavi A. 1986. Helping at the nest, allofeeding and social status in immature arabian babblers. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 18: 339351.
  • 39
    Dowling JH. 1968. Individual ownership and the sharing of game in hunting societies. Am Anthropol 70: 502507.
  • 40
    Wiessner P. 1996. Leveling the hunter: constraints on the status quest in foraging societies. In: WiessnerP, SchiefenhovelW, editors. Food and the status quest: an interdisciplinary perspective. Providence: Berghahn Books. p 171191.
  • 41
    Lee RB. 1979. The !Kung San: men, women and work in a foraging society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 42
    Thomas EM. 1959. The harmless people. New York: Knopf.
  • 43
    Hill K, Hurtado AM. 1996. Ache life history: the ecology and demography of a foraging people. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  • 44
    Hill K, Kaplan H, Hawkes K, Hurtado AM. 1985. Men's time allocation to subsistence work among the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Hum Ecol 13: 2947.
  • 45
    Hill K, Hawkes K, Hurtado AM, Kaplan H. 1984. Seasonal variance in the diet of Ache hunter-gatherers in eastern Paraguay. Hum Ecol 12: 145180.
  • 46
    Hawkes K. 1987. How much food do foragers need? In: HarrisM, RossE, editors. Food and evolution: toward a theory of human food habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p 341355.
  • 47
    Kaplan H, Hill K, Lancaster J, Hurtado AM. 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol Anthropol 9: 156185.
  • 48
    Hill K, Hawkes K. 1983. Neotropical hunting among the Ache of eastern Paraguay. In: HamesR, VickersW, editors. Adaptations of native Amazonians. New York: Academic Press. p 139188.
  • 49
    Kaplan H, Hill K, Hawkes K, Hurtado AM. 1984. Food sharing among Ache hunter-gatherers of eastern Paraguay. Curr Anthropol 25: 113115.
  • 50
    Hill K, Kaplan H. 1988. Tradeoffs in male and female reproductive strategies among Ache foragers. In: BetzigL, Borgerhoff MulderM, TurkeP, editors. Human reproductive effort. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 277306.
  • 51
    Kaplan H, Hill K. 1985. Hunting ability and reproductive success among male Ache foragers: preliminary results. Curr Anthropol 26: 131133.
  • 52
    Woodburn J. 1968. An introduction to Hadza ecology. In: LeeRB, DeVoreI, editors. Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter. p 4955.
  • 53
    O'Connell JF, Hawkes K, Blurton Jones NG. 1988. Hadza scavenging: implications for Plio-Pleistocene hominid subsistence. Curr Anthropol 29: 356363.
  • 54
    Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG. 1991. Hunting income patterns among the Hadza: big game, common goods, foraging goals, and the evolution of the human diet. Philosophical Trans R Soc B 334: 243251.
  • 55
    Barnard A, Woodburn J. 1988. Property power and ideology in hunting and gathering societies: an introduction. In: IngoldT, RichesD, WoodburnJ, editors. Hunters and gatherers 2: property, power and ideology. New York: Berg. p 431.
  • 56
    Woodburn J. 1998. Sharing is not a form of exchange: an analysis of property sharing in immediate return hunter-gatherer societies. In: HannCM, editor. Property relations: renewing the anthropological tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 4863.
  • 57
    Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG. 2001. Hadza meat sharing. Evol Human Behav 22: 113142.
  • 58
    Hawkes K. 1993b. On why male foragers hunt and share food: Reply to Hill and Kaplan. Curr Anthropol 34: 706710.
  • 59
    Blurton Jones NG, Hawkes K, O'Connell JF. 1997. Why do Hadza children forage? In: SegalN, WeisfeldGE, WeisfeldCC, editors. Uniting psychology and biology: integrative perspectives on human development. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. p 279313.
  • 60
    Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG. 1997. Hadza women's time allocation, offspring production, and the evolution of long postmenopausal life spans. Curr Anthropol 38: 551577.
  • 61
    Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG (n.d.) Hadza hunting and the evolution of nuclear families. Curr Anthropol, in press.
  • 62
    Blurton Jones NG, Marlowe F, Hawkes K, O'Connell JF. 2000. Hunter-gatherer divorce rates and the paternal provisioning theory of human monogamy. In: CronkL, ChagnonN, IronsW, editors. Adaptation and human behavior: an anthropological perspective. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 6584.
  • 63
    Smith EA, Bliege Bird R. 2000. Benefits of costly signaling: Mariam turtle hunters and spear fishers. Anthropological Association Annual Meetings. San Francisco.
  • 64
    Nishida T, Hasegawa T, Hayaki H, Takahata Y, Uehara S. 1992. Meat-sharing as a coalition strategy by an alpha male chimpanzee? In: NishidaT, McGrewWC, MarlerP, PickfordM, de WaalFBM, editors. Topics in primatology, Vol. I, Human origins. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. p 159174.
  • 65
    Mitani J, Watts D. 2001. Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat? Anim Behav 61, in press.
  • 66
    Stanford CB, Wallis J, Mpongo E, Goodall I. 1994. Hunting decisions in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 131: 120.
  • 67
    Teleki G. 1973. The predatory behavior of wild chimpanzees. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.
  • 68
    Stanford CB. 1998. Chimpanzee and red colobus: the ecology of predator and prey. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • 69
    Goodall J. 1986. The chimpanzees of Gombe: patterns of behavior. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • 70
    Boesch C, Boesch H. 1989. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Tai National Park. Am J Phys Anthropol 78: 547573.
  • 71
    Wrangham RW, Riss E van ZB. 1990. Rates of predation on mammals by Gombe chimpanzees, 1972–1975. Primates 31: 157170.
  • 72
    Stanford CB. 1999. The Hunting apes: meat eating and the origins of human behavior. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • 73
    Lee RB. 1968. What hunters do for a living: how to make out on scarce resources. In: LeeRB, DeVoreI, editors. Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter. p 3048.
  • 74
    Hawkes K. 1992. On sharing and work (a comment on Bird-David). Curr Anthropol 33: 404407.
  • 75
    Blurton Jones NG, Konner M. 1976. !Kung knowledge of animal behavior (or: the proper study of mankind is animals). In: LeeRB, DeVoreI, editors. Kalahari hunters: studies of the !Kung San and their neighbors. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p 325348.
  • 76
    Marshall L. 1976. The !Kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • 77
    Petrie M, Halliday T, Sanders C. 1991. Peahens prefer peacocks with elaborate trains. Anim Behav 41: 32331.
  • 78
    Ryan MJ. 1990. Sensory systems, sexual selection, and sensory exploitation. Oxford Surveys Evol Biol 7: 157195.
  • 79
    Endler JA. 1992. Signals, signal conditions and the direction of evolution. Am Nat 139: S125S153.
  • 80
    Endler JA. 1993. Some general comments on the design of animal signaling systems. Philos Trans R Soc London B 340: 215225.
  • 81
    Guilford T, Dawkins MS. 1993. Receiver psychology and the design of animal signals. Trends Neurosci 16: 430436.
  • 82
    Guilford T. 1997. The extravagance of animal signals. J Biol Educ 31: 2429.
  • 83
    Roberts G. 1998. Competitive altruism: from reciprocity to the handicap principle. Proc R Soc London B 265: 427431.
  • 84
    Darwin C. 1871. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: J.Murray.
  • 85
    Frank R. 1999. Luxury fever: why money fails to satisfy in an era of excess. New York: The Free Press.
  • 86
    Trivers RL. 1971. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q Rev Biol 46: 3557.
  • 87
    Wiessner P. 1982. Risk, reciprocity, and social influences on !Kung San economics. In: LeacockE, LeeRB, editors. Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 6184.
  • 88
    Malinowski B. 1922. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: E.P. Dutton.
  • 89
    Peterson N. 1993. Demand sharing: reciprocity and the pressure for generosity among foragers. Am Anthropol 95: 86074.
  • 90
    Axelrod R, Hamilton WD. 1981. The evolution of cooperation. Science 211: 13901396.
  • 91
    Boyd R, Lorberbaum J. 1987. No pure strategy is evolutionarily stable in the repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Nature 327: 5859.
  • 92
    Boyd R, Richerson P. 1988. The evolution of reciprocity in sizeable groups. J Theor Biol 132: 337356.
  • 93
    Hirshleifer J, Martinez-Coll JC. 1988. What strategies can support the evolutionary emergence of cooperation? J Conflict Resolution 32: 367398.
  • 94
    Bliege Bird R, Bird D. 1997. Delayed reciprocity and tolerated theft. Curr Anthropol 38: 4978.
  • 95
    Winterhalder B. 1986. Diet choice, risk, and food sharing in a stochastic environment. J Anthropol Archaeol 5: 369392.
  • 96
    Smith EA. 1988. Risk and uncertainty in the “original affluent society”: evolutionary ecology of resource sharing and land tenure. In: IngoldT, RichesD, WoodburnJ, editors. Hunter gatherers 1: history, evolution, and social change. Oxford: Berg. p 222252.
  • 97
    Nowak MA, Sigmund K. 1998. Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature 393: 573577.
  • 98
    Hirshleifer J. 1999. There are many evolutionary pathways to cooperation. J Bioecon 1: 7393.
  • 99
    Dugatkin LA. 1997. Cooperation among animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 100
    Connor RC. 1986. Pseudo-reciprocity: investing in mutualism. Anim Behav 34: 15621584.
  • 101
    Clements KC, Stephens DW. 1995. Testing models of animal cooperation: feeding bluejays cooperate mutualistically, but defect in a massively iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Anim Behav 50: 527535.
  • 102
    Pusey AE, Packer C. 1997. The ecology of relationships. In: KrebsJR, DaviesNB, editors. Behavioral ecology: an evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell Science. p 254283.
  • 103
    Hames R. 2000. Reciprocal altruism in Yanomamo food exchange. In: CronkL, ChagnonN, IronsW, editors. Adaptation and human behavior: an anthropological perspective. New York: Aldine De Gruyter. p 397416.
  • 104
    Gurven M, Hill K, Hurtado A, Lyles R. 2000. Food transfers among Hiwi foragers of Venezuela: tests of reciprocity. Hum Ecol 28: 171214.