• comparative neuroanatomy;
  • brain evolution;
  • allometry;
  • MRI;
  • cerebellum;
  • cerebral cortex;
  • prefrontal cortex


Allometric analyses of brain structure sizes across the primate order demonstrate that human, ape, and other anthropoid brains are not simply allometrically scaled versions of the same generalized design. Both human and ape brains exhibit specializations with respect to other anthropoid brains. Ape specializations include elaboration of the cerebellum (all apes) and frontal lobes (great apes only), and probably connectivity between them. Human brain specializations include an overall larger proportion of neocortex, with disproportionate enlargement of prefrontal and temporal association cortices; an apparent increase in cerebellar connections with cerebral cortical association areas involved in cognition; and a probable augmentation of intracortical connectivity in prefrontal cortex.