SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Boyd R,Richerson PJ. 2005. The origin and evolution of cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 2
    Vitousek PM,Mooney HA,Lubchenco J,Melillo JM. 1997. Human domination of earth's ecosystems. Science 277: 494499.
  • 3
    Smil V. 2002. The earth's biosphere: evolution, dynamics, and change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • 4
    Hölldobler B,Wilson EO. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 5
    The US Bureau of Labor Statistics 2008–2009 http://www.bls.gov/bls/occupation.htm. IUCN mammalian species list http://www.iucnredlist.org/mammals/redlist_status.
  • 6
    Binford L. 2001. Constructing frames of reference. Berkeley: University of California Press. p 143.
  • 7
    Alvard M. 2003. The adaptive nature of culture. Evol Anthropol 12: 136149.
  • 8
    Richerson P,Boyd R. 2005. Not by genes alone. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 9
    Gintis H. 2007. A framework for the integration of the behavioral sciences. Behav Brain Sci 30: 161.
  • 10
    Tomasello M. 2008. Origins of human communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • 11
    Henrich N,Henrich J. 2007. Why humans cooperate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 12
    Vonk J,Brosnan SF,Silk JB,Henrich J,Richardson AS,Lambeth SP,Schapiro SJ,Povinelli DJ. 2008. Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group members. Anim Behav 75: 17571770.
  • 13
    Silk JB,Brosnan SF,Vonk J,Henrich J,Povinelli DJ,Richardson AS,Lambeth SP,Mascaro J,Shapiro SJ. 2006. Chimpanzee choice and prosociality (reply). Nature 440: E6.
  • 14
    Gurven M. 2004. To give and to give not: the behavioral ecology of human food transfers. Behav Brain Sci 27: 543583.
  • 15
    Hill K. 2002. Altruistic cooperation during foraging by the Ache, and the evolved human predispostion to cooperate. Hum Nat 13: 105128.
  • 16
    Hill K,Boesch C,Goodall J,Pusey A,Williams J,Wrangham R. 2001. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. J Hum Evol 40: 437450.
  • 17
    Cavalli-Sforza LL,Feldman MW. 1973. Models for cultural inheritance. I. Group mean and within group variation. Theor Popul Biol 4: 4244.
  • 18
    Boyd R,Richerson P. 1985. Culture and the evolutionary process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 19
    Henrich J,McElreath R. 2003. The evolution of cultural evolution. Evol Anthropol 12: 123135.
  • 20
    Mesoudi A,Whiten A,Laland KN. 2006. Towards a unified science of cultural evolution. Behav Brain Sci 29: 329383.
  • 21
    Laland K,Galef BG. 2009. The question of animal culture. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 22
    Byrne RW,Barnard PJ,Davidson I,Janik VM,McGrew WC,Milosi A,Wiessner P. 2004. Understanding culture across species. Trends Cogn Sci 8: 341346.
  • 23
    Sapolsky R. 2006. Social cultures among non-human primates. Curr Anthropol 47: 641656.
  • 24
    Whiten A,Goodall J,McGrew WC,Nishida T,Reynolds V,Sugiyama Y,Tutin CEG,Wrangham RW,Boesch C. 1999. Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399: 682685.
  • 25
    van Schaik C,Ancrenaz M,Borgen G,Galdikas B,Knott C,Singleton I,Suzuki A,Utami S,Merril M. 2003. Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science 299: 102105.
  • 26
    Enquist M,Ghirlanda S. 2007. Evolution of social learning does not explain the origin of human cumulative culture. J Theor Biol 246: 129135.
  • 27
    Galef BG. 1992. The question of animal culture. Hum Nat 3: 157178.
  • 28
    Hill K. 2009. Animal “culture”? In: LalandKN,GalefBG, editors. The question of animal culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 269287.
  • 29
    Tomasello M. 1994. The question of chimpanzee culture. In: WranghamR,McGrewW,de WaalF,HeltneP, editors. Chimpanzee cultures. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 30
    Mesoudi A,Whiten A. n.d. The multiple roles of cultural transmission experiments in understanding human cultural evolution. Philas Trans R Soc B. In press.
  • 31
    Voelkl B,Huber L. 2000. True imitation in marmosets. Anim Behav 60: 195202.
  • 32
    Heyes CM. 1996. Identifying and defining imitation. In: HeyesC,GalefBG, editors. Social learning and the roots of culture. New York: Academic Press. p 211220.
  • 33
    Horner V,Whiten A. 2005. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). Anim Cogn 8: 164181.
  • 34
    Tomasello M. 2009. The question of chimpanzee culture, plus postscript (Chimpanzee Culture, 2009.). In: LalandKN,GalefBG, editors. The question of animal culture. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. p 198221.
  • 35
    McGregor A,Saggerson A,Pearce J,Heyes C. 2006. Blind imitation in pigeons, Columba livia. Anim Behav 72: 287296.
  • 36
    Rakoczy H,Warneken F,Tomasello M. n.d. The sources of normativity: young children's awareness of the normative structure of games. Dev Psychol. In Press.
  • 37
    Whiten A,Spiteri A,Horner V,Bonnie KE,Lambeth SP,Schapiro SJ,de Waal FBM. 2007. Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups. Curr Biol 17: 10381043.
  • 38
    Marshall-Pescini S,Whiten A. 2008. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the question of cumulative culture: an experimental approach. Anim Cogn 11: 449456.
  • 39
    Hoppitt WJE,Brown GR,Kendal R,Rendell L,Thornton A,Webster MM,Laland KM. 2008. Lessons from animal teaching. Trends in Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1016/j.tree. 2008.05.008
  • 40
    Boyd R,Richerson PJ. 1996. Why culture is common, but cultural evolution is rare. Proc Bri Acad 88: 7793.
  • 41
    Gergely G,Csibra G. 2006. Sylvia's recipe: the role of imitation and pedagogy in the transmission of human culture. In: EnfieldNJ,LevensonSC, editors. Roots of human sociality: culture, cognition, and human interaction. Oxford: Berg. p 229255.
  • 42
    Boyd R,Richerson PJ. 2002. Group beneficial norms can spread rapidly in a structured population. J Theor Biol 215: 287296.
  • 43
    Henrich J. 2004. Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes, and large-scale cooperation. J Econ Behav Organ 53: 335.
  • 44
    Boyd R,Richerson PJ. 1987. The evolution of ethnic markers. Cultural Anthropol 2: 6579.
  • 45
    McElreath R,Boyd R,Richerson PJ. 2003. Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markers. Curr Anthropol 44: 122129.
  • 46
    Kenneally C. 2007. The first word: the search for the origins of language. New York: Penguin Group.
  • 47
    Langergraber KE,Mitani JC,Vigilant L. 2007. The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104: 77867790.
  • 48
    Wiessner P. 1996. Leveling the hunter: constraints on the status quest in foraging societies. In: WiessnerP,SchiefenhövelW, editors. Food and the status quest. Oxford: Berghahn Books. p 171191.
  • 49
    Boehm C. 1999. Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 50
    HewlettB,LambM, editors. 2005. Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental and cultural perspectives. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  • 51
    Wiessner P. 1977. Hxaro: a regional system of reciprocity for reducing risk among the !Kung San. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms.
  • 52
    Fehr E,Fischbacher U. 2003. The nature of human altruism. Nature 425: 785791.
  • 53
    Tversky A. 2004. Preference, belief, and similarity: selected writings. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • 54
    Ahn TK,Ostrom E,Walker J. 2003. Incorporating motivational heterogeneity into game theoretic models of collective action. Public Choice 117: 295314.
  • 55
    Oosterbeek H,Sloof R,van de Kuilen G. 2004. Differences in ultimatum game experiments: evidence from a meta-analysis. Exp Econ 7: 171188.
  • 56
    Camerer C. 2003. Behavioral game theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • 57
    Ahn TK,Janssen M. 2004. Adaptation vs. anticipation in public-good games. Conference Papers: Southern Political Science Org. p 136.
  • 58
    Hagen EH,Hammerstein P. 2006. Game theory and human evolution: a critique of some recent interpretations of experimental games. Theor Popul Biol 69: 339348.
  • 59
    West SA,Griffin AS,Gardner A. 2007. Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection. J Evol Biol 20: 415432.
  • 60
    Fehr E,Henrich J. 2003. Is strong reciprocity a maladaptation? In: HammersteinP, editor. Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • 61
    Henrich J,Boyd R,Bowles S,Camerer C,Fehr E,Gintis H. 2004. Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 62
    Henrich J,McElreath R,Barr A,Ensminger J,Barrett C,Bolyanatz A,Camilo JC,Gurven M,Gwako E,Henrich N,Lesorogol C,Marlowe F,Tracer D,Ziker J. 2006. Costly punishment across human societies. Science 312: 17671770.
  • 63
    Price GR. 1970. Selection and covariance. Nature 227: 520521.
  • 64
    Nowak MA,Sigmund K. 2005. Evolution of indirect reciprocity. Nature 437: 12911298.
  • 65
    Buchan NR,Johnson EJ,Croson RT. 2006. Lets get personal: an international examination of the influence of communication, culture and social distance on other regarding preferences. J Econ Behav Organ 60: 373398.
  • 66
    Gardner A,West SA. 2004. Cooperation and punishment, especially in humans. Am Nat 164: 753764.
  • 67
    Bowles S. 2006. Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science 314: 15691572.
  • 68
    Fehr E,Fischbacher U. 2004. Third party punishment and social norms. Evol Hum Behav 25: 6387.
  • 69
    Camerer CF,Fehr E. 2006. When does “economic man” dominate social behavior? Science 311: 4752.
  • 70
    Kurzban R,DeScioli P,O'Brien E. 2007. Audience effects on moralistic punishment. Evol Hum Behav 28: 7584.
  • 71
    Nelissen RA. 2008. The price you pay: cost-dependent reputation effects of altruistic punishment. Evol Hum Behav 29: 242248.
  • 72
    Denant-Boemont L,Masclet D,Noussair C. 2007. Punishment, counterpunishment and sanction enforcement in a social dilemma experiment. Econ Theory 33: 145167.
  • 73
    Janssen M,Bushman C. 2008. Evolution of cooperation and altruistic punishment when retaliation is possible. J Theor Biol 254: 541545.
  • 74
    Marlowe FW, et al. 2008. More “altruistic” punishment in larger societies. Proc R Soc London B 275: 587590.
  • 75
    Wiessner P. 2005. Norm enforcement among the Ju'/hoansi bushmen. a case for strong reciprocity? Hum Nat 16: 115145.
  • 76
    Boyd R,Gintis H,Bowles S,Richerson PJ. 2003. The evolution of altruistic punishment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 3531.
  • 77
    Boyd R,Richerson PJ. 1992. Punishment allows the evolution of cooperation (or anything else) in sizable groups. Ethol Sociobiol 13: 171195.
  • 78
    Boyd R,Mathew S. 2007. A narrow road to cooperation. Science 316: 18581859.
  • 79
    Gintis H. 2000. Strong reciprocity and human sociality. J Theor Biol 206: 169179.
  • 80
    Jensen K,Call J,Tomasello M. 2007. Chimpanzees are vengeful but not spiteful. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 1304613050.
  • 81
    Jensen K,Call J,Tomasello M. 2007. Chimpanzees are rational maximizers in an ultimatum game. Science 318: 107.
  • 82
    Warneken F,Hare B,Melis AP,Hanus D,Tomasello M. 2007. Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children. PLoS Biol 5: e184.
  • 83
    Hermann E,Call J,Hernandez-Lloreda MV,Hare B,Tomasello M. 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science 317: 13601366.
  • 84
    de Quervain D,Fischbacher U,Treyer V,Schellhammer M,Schnyder U,Buck A,Fehr E. 2004. The neural basis of altruistic punishment. Science 305: 12541258.
  • 85
    Fehr E,Camerer C. 2007. Social neuroeconomics: the neural circuitry of social preferences. Trends Cogn Sci 11: 419427.
  • 86
    Buckholtz JW,Asplund CL,Dux PE,Zald DH,Gore JC,Jones OD,Marois R. 2008. The neural correlates of third-party punishment. Neuron 60: 930940.
  • 87
    Richerson P,Boyd R. 2000. Climate, culture, and the evolution of cognition. In: HeyesC,HuberL, editors. The evolution of cognition. Cambridge, Mass: MIT press.
  • 88
    Call J,Tomasello M. 2008. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12: 187192.
  • 89
    Bailey RC. 1991. The behavioral ecology of Efe pygmy men in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Ann Arbor: Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan No. 86.
  • 90
    Pontzer H,Wrangham RW. 2004. Climbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid locomotor evolution. J Hum Evol 46: 315333.
  • 91
    Hill K,Hurtado AM. 1996. Ache life history: the ecology and demography of a foraging people. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  • 92
    Hewlett B,van de Koppel J,Cavalli-Sforza LL. 1982. Exploration ranges of Aka pygmies of the Central African Republic. Man 17: 418430.
  • 93
    Williams J,Oehlert GW,Carlis JV,Pusey AE. 2004. Why do male chimpanzees defend a group range. Anim Behav 68: 523532.
  • 94
    Laland KN,Kendal JR. 2003. What the models say about social learning. In: FragaszyDM,PerryS, editors. The biology of traditions: models and evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 3355.
  • 95
    Kaplan H,Hill K,Lancaster J,Hurtado AM. 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol Anthropol 9: 156185.
  • 96
    Creel S,McNutt JW,Mills MGL. 2004. Demography and population dynamics of African wild dogs in three critical populations. In: MacdonaldDW,Sillero-ZubiriC, editors. Biology and conservation of wild canids. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 337350.
  • 97
    Wiessner P. 2002. Hunting, healing, and hxaro exchange: a long-term perspective on !Kung (Ju/'hoansi) large-game hunting. Evol Hum Behav 23: 407436.
  • 98
    Hill KR,Hurtado AM. n.d. Cooperative breeding in South American hunter-gatherers. Proc Royal Soc B.
  • 99
    Hrdy SB. 2009. Mothers and others. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.
  • 100
    Kaplan H. 1994. Evolutionary and wealth flows theories of fertility: empirical tests and new models. Popul Dev Rev 20: 753791.
  • 101
    Sear R,Mace R. 2008. Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evol Hum Behav 29: 118.
  • 102
    In multiple regression analyses the impact of surviving members of kin class A on survival of juveniles will not be detected if the main biological contribution is to promote the survival of individuals in kin class B, who then contribute to the survival of the target juveniles.
  • 103
    Gurven M,Walker R. 2006. Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proc R Soc London B: Biol Sci 273: 835841.
  • 104
    Walker R,Hill K,Kaplan H,McMillan G. 2002. Age-dependency in skill, strength and hunting ability among the Ache of eastern Paraguay. J Hum Evol 42: 639657.
  • 105
    Allen-Arave W,Gurven M,Hill K. 2008. Reciprocal altruism, rather than kin selection, maintains nepotistic food transfers on an Ache reservation. Evol Hum Behav 29: 305318.
  • 106
    Hawkes K,O'Connell JF,Blurton Jones NG,Charnov EL,Alvarez H. 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 13361339.
  • 107
    Cordain L,Miller JB,Eaton SB,Mann N,Holt SH,Speth JD. 2000. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr 71: 682692.
  • 108
    Dominguez-Rodrigo M,Barba R. 2006. New estimates of tooth mark and percussion mark frequencies at the FLK Zinj site: the carnivore-hominid-carnivore hypothesis falsified. J Hum Evol 50: 170194.
  • 109
    Zhu RX,Potts R,Xie F,Hoffman KA,Deng CL,Shi CD,Pan YX,Wang HQ,Shi RP,Wang YC,Shi GH,Wu NQ. 2004. New evidence on the earliest human presence at high northern latitudes in northeast Asia. Nature 431: 559562.
  • 110
    Richards MP,Pettitt PB,Trinkaus E,Smith FH,Paunović M,Karavanić, I. 2000. Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 76637666.
  • 111
    Hoberg EP,Alkire NL,de Querioz A,Jones A. 2001. Out of Africa: origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans. Proc R Soc Lond B 268: 781787.
  • 112
    Hill K,Hurtado AM,Walker R. 2007. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for human evolution. J Hum Evol 52: 443454.
  • 113
    Gurven M,Hill K. 2009. Hunting as subsistence and mating effort? A re-evaluation of “Man the Hunter,” the sexual division of labor and the evolution of the nuclear family. Curr Anthropol 50: 5174.
  • 114
    Bruintjes R,Taborsky M. 2008. Helpers in a cooperative breeder pay a high price to stay: effects of demand, helper size and sex. Anim Behav 75: 18431850.
  • 115
    Emery Thompson M,Jones JH,Pusey AE,Brewer-Marsden S,Goodall J,Marsden D,Matsuzawa T,Nishida T,Reynolds V,Sugiyama Y,Wrangham RW. 2007. Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause. Curr Biol 17: 21502156.
  • 116
    Rogers A. 1993. Why menopause. Evol Ecol 7: 406420.
  • 117
    Cant MA,Johnstone RA. 2008. Reproductive conflict and the separation of reproductive generations in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 53325336.
  • 118
    Burkart J,Fehr E,Efferson C,van Schaik C. 2007. Other regarding preferences in a non-human primate: common marmosets provision food altruistically. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 1976219766.
  • 119
    Wong MYL,Buston PM,Munday PL,Jones GP. 2007. The threat of punishment enforces peaceful cooperation and stabilizes queues in a coral-reef fish. Proc R Soc London B 274: 10931099.
  • 120
    Liebig J,Peeters C,Holldobler B. 1999. Worker policing limits the number of reproductives in a ponerine ant. Proc R Soc London B 266: 18651870.
  • 121
    Clutton-Brock TH,Russell AF,Sharpe LL,Jordan NR. 2005. “False feeding” and aggression in meerkat societies. Anim Behav 69: 12731284
  • 122
    McDonald PG,Kazem AJN,Wright J. 2007. A critical analysis of “false-feeding” behavior in a cooperatively breeding bird: disturbance effects, satiated nestlings or deception? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61: 16231635.
  • 123
    Csibra G. 2007. Teachers in the wild. Trends Cogn Sci 11: 9596.
  • 124
    Tomasello M,Carpenter M,Call J,Behne T,Moll H. 2005. Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognition. Behav Brain Sci 28: 75735.
  • 125
    d'Errico F, 2007. The origin of humanity and modern cultures: archaeology's view. Diogenes 54: 122133.
  • 126
    Henshilwood CS,Marean CW. 2003. The origin of modern human behavior: critique of the models and their test implications. Curr Anthropol 44: 627651.
  • 127
    Dean C,Leakey MG,Reid D,Schrenk F,Schwartz GT,Stringer C,Walker A. 2001. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature 414: 628631.
  • 128
    Ponce de Leon MS,Golovanova L,Doronichev V,Romanova G,Akazawa T,Kondo O,Ishida H,Zollikofer CPE. 2008. Neanderthal brain size at birth provides insights into the evolution of human life history. Proc Nat Acad Sci 105: 1376413768.
  • 129
    Smith TM,Tafforeau P,Reid DJ,Grün R,Eggins S,Boutakiout M,Hublin JJ. 2007. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 61286133.
  • 130
    Smith TM,Toussaint M,Reid DJ,Olejniczak AJ,Hublin, JJ. 2007. Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 2022020225.
  • 131
    Milton K. 1987. Primate diets and gut morphology: implications for hominid evolution. In: HarrisM,BossE, editors. Food and evolution: toward a theory of human food habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p 96116.
  • 132
    Potts R. 1994. Variables versus models of early Pleistocene hominid land-use. J Hum Evol 27: 724.
  • 133
    Carbonell E,Bermudez de Castro JM,Pares JM,Perez-Gonzalez A,Cuenca-Bescos G,Olle A,Mosquera M,Huguet R,van der Made J,Rosas A,Sala R,Vallverdu J,Garcia N,Granger DE,Martinon-Torres M,Rodriguez XP,Stock GM,Verges JM,Allue E,Burjachs F,Caceres I,Canals A,Benito A,Diez C,Lozano M,Mateos A,Navazo M,Rodriguez J,Rosell J,Arsuaga JL. 2008. The first hominin of Europe. Nature 452: 465469.
  • 134
    Goren-Inbar N,Alperson N,Kislev ME,Simchoni O,Melamed Y,Ben-Nun A,Werker E. 2004. Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Science 304: 725727.
  • 135
    Degusta D. 2002. Comparative skeletal pathology and the case for conspecific care in Middle Pleistocene hominids. J Archaeol Sci 29: 14351438.
  • 136
    Bermúdez de Castro JM,Martinón-Torres M,Carbonell E,Sarmiento S,Rosas A,Made JVD,Lozano M. 2004. The Atapuerca sites and their contribution to the knowledge of human evolution in Europe. Evol Anthropol 13: 2541.
  • 137
    Dettwyler KA. 1991. Can paleopathology provide evidence for “compassion”? Am J Phys Anthropol 84: 375384.
  • 138
    Gabunia L. et al. 2000. Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science 288: 10191025.
  • 139
    Gowlett JA. 2006. The early settlement of northern Europe: fire history in the context of climate change and the social brain. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 5: 299310.
  • 140
    Petraglia MD,Shipton C. 2008. Large cutting tool variation west and east of the Movius Line. J Hum Evol 55: 962966.
  • 141
    McPherron SP. 2000. Handaxes as a measure of the mental capabilities of early Hominids. J Archaeol Sci 27: 655663.
  • 142
    McBrearty S,Brooks AS. 2000. The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J Hum Evol 39: 453563.
  • 143
    Jacobs Z,Roberts RG,Galbraith RF,Deacon HJ,Grun R,Mackay A,Mitchell P,Vogelsang R,Wadley L. 2008. Ages for the Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa: implications for human behavior and dispersal. Science 322: 733735.
  • 144
    Tribolo C,Mercier N,Valladas H,Joron J,Guibert P,Lefrais Y,Selo M,Texier P,Rigaud J,Porraz G,Poggenpoel C,Parkington J,Texier J,Lenoble A. 2009. Thermoluminescence dating of a Stillbay-Howiesons Poort sequence at Diepkloof Rock Shelter (Western Cape, South Africa). J Archaeol Sci 36: 730739.
  • 145
    Bolus M,Conard NJ. 2001. The late Middle Paleolithic and earliest Upper Paleolithic in central Europe and their relevance for the Out of Africa hypothesis. Quaternary Int 75: 2940.
  • 146
    Cremaschi M,Di Lernia S,Garcea EAA. 1998. Some insights on the Aterian in the Libyan Sahara: chronology, environment, and archaeology. Afr Archaeol Rev 15: 261286.
  • 147
    Marean CW,Bar-Matthews M,Bernatchez J,Fisher E,Goldberg P,Herries AIR, et al. 2007. Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene. Nature 449: 905908.
  • 148
    Watts I. 2002. Ochre in the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa: ritualized display or hide preservative? S Afr Archaeol Bull 57: 114.
  • 149
    Wadley L,Williamson B,Lombard M. 2004. Ochre in hafting in Middle Stone Age southern Africa: a practical role. Antiquity 78: 661675.
  • 150
    Henshilwood CS,d'Errico F,Vanhaeren M,van Niekerk KL,Jacobs Z. 2004. Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science 304: 404.
  • 151
    Féblot-Augustins J. 1993. Mobility strategies in the late Middle Paleolithic of Central Europe and Western Europe: elements of stability and variability. J Anthropol Archeol 12: 211265.
  • 152
    Barton M,Riel-Salvatore J. n.d. A lithic perspective on ecological dynamics in the Upper Pleistocene of Western Eurasia. In: OlszewskiD,DibbleH, editors. Papers in honor of Arthur Jelinek. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. In review.
  • 153
    Shea JJ. 2007. Behavioral differences between middle and upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens in the east Mediterranean Levant. J Anthropol Res 63: 449488.