• genomics;
  • genetics;
  • molecular evolution;
  • adaptation;
  • population genetics


In the decade since the first draft of the human genome was announced,1 genome sequencing projects have been initiated for an additional twenty-some primate species. Within the next several years, genome sequence data will likely become available for all primate genera and for most individuals within some primate populations.2, 3 At the same time, gene mapping and association studies of humans and other organisms are rapidly advancing our understanding of the genetic bases of behavioral and morphological traits. Primatologists are especially well-placed to take advantage of this coming flood of genetic data. Here we discuss what this new era of primate genomics means for field primatology and highlight some of the unprecedented opportunities it will afford, particularly with regard to examining the genetic basis of primate adaptation and diversity.