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Keywords:

  • bus;
  • fire;
  • interior materials;
  • ISO 3795;
  • FMVSS 302;
  • ISO 6941;
  • ISO 5658-2;
  • ECE Reg. No 118;
  • EU directive 95/28/CE

SUMMARY

This work concerns the assessment of fire performance of interior materials in buses. The widely used test method ISO 3795/FMVSS 302 has received much criticism mainly based on the fact that the test is a small-scale method not suited for bus fires induced by for example fire in the engine compartment or fire in a tyre. Furthermore, test specimens are oriented horizontally, whereas much fire spread in a real bus fire occurs on vertically oriented products. Seventeen products were investigated: 11 textiles, four solids and two insulations. Three test methods were compared: ISO 3795, ISO 6941 and ISO 5658-2. Given the existing criteria for interior materials, it was found that ISO 6941 and ISO 5658-2 place harder requirements on the materials.

When the three methods were compared, it was found that ISO 3795/FMVSS 302 and ISO 6941 are insufficient for simulating bus fires typically occurring today. Such fires are often initiated by a fire in the engine compartment or in a tyre and can hardly be simulated by small-scale methods as ISO 3795/FMVSS 302 or ISO 6941 even if the ISO 6941 method to some extent gives results similar to the established large-scale ISO 5658-2 method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.