• flashover;
  • hot gas layer temperature;
  • enclosure fires;
  • combustible lining materials


With the theories of fire dynamics and relevant parameters of combustible lining materials, a predicted model of hot gas layer temperature during pre-flashover stage of enclosure fires was established, and the effects of lining materials on the likelihood of flashover were theoretically analyzed. By using common commercial lining materials, such as wall papers, foam plastics, wood-based panels, and fabric-upholstered wall panel, the phenomenon of flashover was reproduced in a small-scale firebox of 1/4 sizes of ISO 9705 test chamber. By comparing the theoretical results with experimental data, the equation predicting the hot gas layer of quasi-steady enclosure fires was gained; an indicator IFO to reflect overall the hazards of flashover and to classify flashover fires was proposed, and its application was initially studied. The study results can be helpful to explain further and overall the effects of lining materials on enclosure fires and can be used to guide the prevention of flashover by choosing appropriate interior decoration materials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.