• epoxy;
  • halogen-free;
  • E and E application;
  • thermal properties;
  • flame retardancy


Amine-cured epoxy resins were prepared at 2% by weight phosphorus content using four halogen-free flame retardants; poly(m-phenylene methyl phosphonate) (Fyrol PMP); 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide; red phosphorus; and aluminum diethylphosphinate (OP1230). The effect of these additives on the properties of cured epoxy, including glass transition temperature, thermal stability, and fire retardancy (cone calorimetry), were studied and were compared with the conventionally used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBA). All properties are improved for the non-halogenated materials compared with TBBA. Further, the stoichiometric amounts of Fyrol PMP and TBBA (without an external curing agent) were reacted with epoxy to determine if they could be used as a flame retardant and as a curing agent; Fyrol PMP effectively acts as a flame retardant and as a curing agent. Evolved gas analysis is also discussed through thermogravimetric analysis/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.