• flame retardancy;
  • ammonium polyphosphate;
  • PS/PA6 blends;
  • dispersion;
  • morphology


The influences of the distribution of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) in polystyrene/nylon-6 [PS/polyamide-6 (PA6)] blends and the continuity of the (PA6 + APP) phase on flame retardancy were investigated. The flame retardant properties were evaluated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical flammability test and cone calorimeter tests. The results showed that APP is exclusively dispersed in the PA6 phase, and (PA6 + APP) phase formed a continuous state when the content of PA6 in PS/PA6 blends was higher than 32% (w/w). For blends with a continuous (PA6 + APP) phase, the decrease of PA6 content caused an increase in LOI values from 26% to 33% and a reduction of peak heat release rate. The improvement of flame retardancy was attributed to the increase of APP concentration in the PA6 phase, which benefited the fast formation of a continuous intumescent charred layer. The transformation of (PA6 + APP) phase morphology from a continuous state to a discontinuous state at a PA6 content of below 32% (w/w) caused a decrease in LOI. Results of thermo-gravimetric and cone calorimeter tests indicated that the discontinuous intumescent charred layer thus formed could be responsible for the deterioration of flame retardant properties, which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.